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FSM4 Conference Materials

Please find below all presentations, audio recordings, conference abstracts and speaker biographies. Enjoy reading!


[click on the DAY or TRACK you are interested in, to go directly to the section]

20 FEBRUARY 2017


21 FEBRUARY 2017


22 FEBRUARY 2017





10:30am - 12:00pm


10:30am - 12:00pm


10:30am - 12:00pm


4.00pm – 5.30pm


4.00pm – 5.30pm


2.30pm – 4.00pm


10:30am - 12:00pm


10:30am - 12:00pm


10:30am - 12:00pm


4.00pm – 5.30pm


4.00pm – 5.30pm


2.30pm – 4.00pm


10:30am - 12:00pm


10:30am - 12:00pm


10:30am - 12:00pm


4.00pm – 5.30pm


4.00pm – 5.30pm


2.30pm – 4.00pm




1. Keynote Presentation: FSM priorities for Swachh Bharat Mission [Audio]


[Speakers' Biographies] [Presentations' Abstracts]
MONDAY, 20 FEBRUARY 2017, 10:30am - 12:00pm

RESEARCH 1.1: Processes - I [Audio]

1. HOFFMANN, M. et al.,“Development of Integrated Reactor Systems for the Combined Biological and Electrochemical Treatment of Faecal-Sludge and Wastewater Without Discharge to the Environment”, USA

2. JIMENEZ, I. et al.,“Urine-tricity Project”, UK

3. SALMON, B. et al.,“Market Insights for The Reinvented Toilet”, India

4. BAIR, R. et al.,“India Field Testing of an Integrated Sanitation Platform with Electronic Public Toilet (eToilet) and Off-grid Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (NEWgenerator™)”, USA

RESEARCH 1.2: Economics & Business I [Audio]

1. MEHTA, M. et al.,“Financing Citywide FSM Services”, India

2. MILLS, F. et al.,“Increasing Institutional and Regulatory Support for Private Sector”, Australia

3. BERENDES, D. et al.,“Sanitation Credits: A New Financing Model to Scale Investment in Fecal Sludge Management”, USA

4. KOOTTATEP, T. et al.,“Financial Feasibility Analysis for FSM business in Thailand”, Thailand

RESEARCH 1.3: Design & Evalutation [Audio]

1. PHILIP, L. et al.,“Performance Evaluation of DRDO Based Anaerobic Biodigesters for Blackwater Treatment”, India

2. MCWHIRTER, M. et al., “Design of Sludge Treatment Facilities in Indonesia: Learning from the Past to Design a Better Future”, India

3. NARTYE, E. et al.,“Technological Options For Fecal Sludge Pelletization In Ghana”, Ghana

4. WOOLLEY, S. et al.,“SASTEP: Lessons Learnt from Phase I of the SASTEP EarthAuger Demonstration in South Africa”, South Africa

MONDAY, 20 FEBRUARY 2017, 4.00pm – 5.30pm

RESEARCH 1.4: Processing Biochar [Audio]

1. HALLOWELL, B. et al.,“Carbon Neutral Electrical Generation from Human Solid Waste: Developing the Energy Balance and Identifying Suitable Electrical Generation Solutions Capable of Harnessing Thermal Energy”, USA

2. FOUTCH, G. et al.,“Temperature and Shear Rate Dependent Viscosity Model for Faeces Simulant and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of a High-Throughput Viscous Heater to Process Faeces”, USA

3. CHENG, Y. et al.,“Smouldering and Catalytic Conversion for Fecal Treatment”, Canada

4. BOHNERT, K. et al.,”Continual Flow Heat Treatment System for Container-based Toilets”, Kenya

RESEARCH 1.5: Economics & Business II [Audio]

1.TSEPHEL, S., Isha, D.,“Scalability of underground drainage and faecal sludge management :- a financial perspective from India”, India

2. WATSON, P. et al.,“Determining the Economically Optimal Capacity of a Decentralized Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant”, USA

3. KITA, A. et al.,“Sub Saharan Africa Stakeholder Perspectives and Early Thoughts on Macro Business Model Implications”, USA

4. SUGDEN, S.,“Strategies and lessons for achieving scale in Sanitation”, USA

RESEARCH 1.6: Characterisation & Quantification of FS [Audio]

1. MEHTA, M. et al.,“San Benchmarks: Citywide Assessment of Sanitation Service Delivery – Including On-Site Sanitation”, India

2. VELKUSHANOVA, K. et al.,“Development and Testing of Faecal Sludge Simulants”, South Africa

3. STRANDE, L.,“Engineering Design Approach for Selection and Design of Treatment Technologies”, Switzerland

4. DE LOS REYES, F. et al.,“Linking Microbial Communities to Degradation Processes Occurring in a VIP and Pour-Flush Latrines”, USA



[Speakers' Biographies] [Presentations' Abstracts]
MONDAY, 20 FEBRUARY 2017, 10:30am - 12:00pm

CASE STUDIES 1.1: Container-Based Sanitation [Audio]

1. GARDINER, V. et al.,“Serviced Household Toilets, FSM and ICT in Antananarivo: Lessons Learned”, Madagascar

2. BERNER, C. et al.,“Waste Transformation, not Waste Treatment: Understanding the Value of Poop in Sanivation’s Waste Processing Model for Cities”, Kenya

3. KRAMER, S. et al.,“Developing a Social Business for the Provision of Household Sanitation in Dense Urban Settings”, Haiti

CASE STUDIES 1.2: Managing FSM in India [Audio]

1. SCOTT, C. L.,“Community Engagement: An Important Part of Successful FSM”, India

2. CHARY, S. et al.,“Operationalizing FSM Regulations at City Level: A Case Study of Warangal”, India

3. MANSURI, A. et al.,“Toilets and Beyond: How to implement ODF in small towns in India”, India

4. REDDY, P., PRAKASH, G., “Operationalising Septage Management Guidelines in Tamil Nadu”, India

MONDAY, 20 FEBRUARY 2017, 4.00pm – 5.30pm

CASE STUDIES 1.3: Organizing FSM [Audio]

1. ASRI, A., MARDIKANTO, I.,“Moving Towards Nationwide Roll Out of Fecal Sludge Management”, Indonesia

2. SUMARNI, S., REINI S.,“Improved Septage Management: Introducing Regular and Improving on-demand emptying, lessons and experience from Balikpapan City, East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia”, Indonesia

3. BUSTRAAN, F. et al.,“Introduction of Scheduled Desludging Services in Indonesia”, Indonesia

4. REDDY, M. et al.,“Application of Information Communication Technology (ICT) for effective Planning and Implementation of FSM Programme: A Case study of Warangal City”, India

CASE STUDIES 1.4: Bringing FSM Operators into the Sanitation Service Chain [Audio]

1. SIMWAMBI, A. et al.,“Current and optional FSM operation models for over-coming current and future challenges”, Zambia

2. ROKOB, J., RIECK, C.,“FSM means tackling the entire sanitation chain: examples from urban Uganda”, Uganda

3. NKURUNZIZA, A.,“The Case for Private Sector Participation in Faecal Sludge Management Service Provision in Kampala”, Uganda



[Speakers' Biographies] [Presentations' Abstracts]
MONDAY, 20 FEBRUARY 2017, 10:30pm – 12:00pm

INDUSTRY 1.1: City Scale FSM [Audio]

1. SAHA, U. K. et al.“City scale sludge treatment plant in Faridpur, Bangladesh: Plan to Action”, Bangladesh

2. BHAVSAR, D. et al.,“A systematic Approach Adopted by government of Maharashtra scale up FSM services”, India

3. INMAN, JR.,“Operation of FSM utility at scale in the US: the case of FloHawks”, USA

INDUSTRY 1.2: FSM Logistics [Audio]

1. GARDINER, V. et al.,“Collection Logistics and Waste Pre-processing: Cross learning” UK

2. VILLARRAGA, H. P. et al.,“Logistic Tool to improve FSM business model”, Thailand

3. TA, H. A., et al.,“Applicability of Innovative possibilities for FS Collection and Transportation services in perception of service operators and experts”, Thailand

MONDAY, 20 FEBRUARY 2017, 4:00pm - 5:30pm

INDUSTRY 1.3: FSM Education & Building Capacity [Audio]

1. MANANDHAR SHERPA, . et al.,“FSM Human Resource Training through online education”, India

2. MILLS, F. et al.,“Equipping local governments with the skills to implement scheduled desludging”, Australia

3. KOHLER, L. et al.,“Assessing city level FSM needs to build capacity”, USA

INDUSTRY 1.4: FSM Knowledge Management [Audio]

1. ROSEMARIN, A. et al.,“Improving SuSanA’s KM and collaboration platform to benefit FSM practitioners”, Sweden

2. SINGH, A. et al.,“Creating demand for sanitation and FSM through exposure- Evidence from Bihar”, India

3. ROHILLA, S. et al.,“Institutional Capacity Building of Ganga Basin Cities for their journey beyond ODF”, India


[Audio1] [Audio2] [Speakers' Biographies]

1. Keynote Presentation: VELAYUTHAM, S., "FSM Asia Case Study: Malaysia"

2. Keynote Presentation: MBEGUERE, M., "FSM Africa Case Study: Senegal"

3. Keynote Presentation: HICKS, C., "Toilet Board Coalition"

4. Keynote Presentation: JANICKI, P., "Transformative Technology and Sanitation Innovation"


[Speakers' Biographies] [Presentations' Abstracts]
TUESDAY, 21 FEBRUARY 2017, 10:30pm – 12:00pm

RESEARCH 2.1: Integrated Processes – II [Audio]

1. ELLEDGE, M. et al.,“Continued Development and Field Testing of a Decentralized, Self-contained Toilet that Converts Human Waste into Burnable Fuel and Disinfected Liquid”, USA

2. GREGO, S. et al.,“Field Testing Of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Technologies With 100% Pathogen Removal”, USA

3. PIASCIK, J. et al.,“Catalytic Pyrolysis of Human Feces for Biofuel Production”, USA

4. KULAK, M. et al.,“A Life Cycle Perspective on Scaling Up Sanitation in India”, UK

RESEARCH 2.2: Pathogen & Parasites Inactivation [Audio]

1. FOUTCH, G. et al.,“The Inactivation of Ascaris suum Eggs by Short Exposure to High Temperatures for the Purpose of Sanitizing VIP Latrine Sludge by Viscous Heating”, USA

2. AMOAH, I. D. et al., “Method for the Detection and Quantification of Soil Transmitted Helminth Eggs in Faecal Sludge”, South Africa

3. CHAPAGAIN, S. K. et al., ”Disinfection from Freshly Separated Fecal Matters by Applying Heat and Chemicals”, Thailand

4. HARROFF, L. et al., “Fermentation of Human Faecal Waste to Produce Carboxylic Acids and Inactivate Ascaris Eggs”, USA

RESEARCH 2.3: Biotreatment – I [Audio]

1. LARAMEE, J. et al.,“Integrating Lifecycle Carbon, Energy and Water Impacts into Decentralized Sanitation Infrastructure Planning”, USA

2. GUEYE, A. et al.,“Is it Possible to Continually Produce Fodder on Planted Drying Beds Treating Faecal Sludge?”, Senegal

3. LALANDER, C. et al.,“Treatment of Faecal Matter – A product value comparison of four treatment options”, Sweden

4. PURKAYASHTA, D. et al.,“Effect of Environmental Parameters on the Treatment of Human Fecal Waste by Black Soldier Fly Larvae”, India

TUESDAY, 21 FEBRUARY 2017, 4.00pm – 5.30pm

RESEARCH 2.4: Integrated Processes – III [Audio]

1. CID, C., Hoffmann, M.,“Design and implementation of integrated electrochemical wastewater treatment and recycling systems for onsite sanitation in the developing world”, USA

2. DESHUSSES, M. et al.,“A Neighbourhood Faecal Sludge Treatment System Using Supercritical Water Oxidation”, USA

3. PARKER, A. et al.,“The Nano Membrane Toilet”, UK

4. YEH, D. et al.,“From TRL5 to TRL7: Development of the NEWgenerator™“, USA

RESEARCH 2.5: Social Aspects [Audio]

1. REDDY, M. et al., “Why do Women in India not Use Public Toilets? Patterns and Determinants of Public Toilet Usage by Women in Warangal City”, India

2. WILLETTS, J. et al., “Smart Compliance in Faecal Sludge Management: Strategies to Achieve Health and Environmental Outcomes”, Australia

3. MILLS, F. et al.,“FSM is Not Just an Urban Issue: Findings from a Rapid Assessment in Rural Vietnam”, Australia

4. CHILKUNDA, C.A.S. et al.,”Studies on the impact of anthropogenic wastes on growth and yield of maize and cowpea, major nutrients and pathogen load in soil”, India

RESEARCH 2.6: Characterisation & Quantification of FS – II [Audio]

1. PRADEEP, R. et al.,“Characteristics of Faecal Sludge generated from onsite systems located in Devanahalli”, India

2. KUMAR, S. et al.,“Septage Characterization in Indian Urban Centres and Standalone Treatment Options for Septage Handling & Disposal”, India

3. DIAZ-AGUADO, B. M. et al.,“Maximising the Value of Fertilisers Derived from Source-Separated Human Waste in Antananarivo, Madagascar”, UK

4. SEPTIEN STRINGEL, S. et al.,“Rheology of faecal sludge from VIP latrines”, South Africa



[Speakers' Biographies] [Presentations' Abstracts]
TUESDAY, 21 FEBRUARY 2017, 10:30pm – 12:00pm

CASE STUDIES 2.1: FSM & Urban Management [Audio]

1. SINGH, S., Dev, B.,“An Arduous Journey of FSM in a Small Municipality of Gulariya, Nepal”, Nepal

2. OKOTH, S. O. et al.,“Scaling up Faecal Sludge Management in Kenya’s Urban Areas”, Kenya

3. SAKAI, A.,“FSM Cooperated with Sewerage in Japan”, Japan

CASE STUDIES 2.2: Public-Private Partnerships for FSM [Audio]

1. DE LA BROSSE, N. et al.,“Tackling the post-ODF challenge in Bangladesh through public-private partnerships: Preliminary results of Faridpur FSM business model”, UK

2. MENZIES, L. et al.,“Hybrid PPP for Non-network Sanitation Improvements in Greater Colombo”, Sri Lanka

3. CHARY, S. et al., "Improving Sanitation Services through Service Level Agreements and Public Private Partnerships: A Case study of Warangal City”, India

TUESDAY, 21 FEBRUARY 2017, 4.00pm – 5.30pm

CASE STUDIES 2.3: Resource Recovery with FSM [Audio]

1. MUSPRATT, A. et al.,“Leveraging resource recovery to pay for sanitation: Pivot Works demonstration in Kigali, Rwanda”, Rwanda

2. BINALE-EBRAHIM, A.,“Turning Human Faeces in Resource in Kenya Informal Settlements”, Kenya

3. ROY, D. C., Kumar, S.,“Learning from Demonstration of FSM Value Chain in Satkhira, Bangladesh”, Bangladesh

CASE STUDIES 2.4: Developing Small FSM Businesses [Audio]

1. DRABBLE, S. et al.,“From pilot project to emerging FSM service: scaling up innovation PPP model for citywide FSM services in Dhaka”, Bangladesh

2. SKLAR, R. et al.,“Designing Pit Emptying Business Models to Facilitate City Scale Faecal Sludge Management Services in Kigali, Rwanda”, Rwanda

3. GREENE, N. et al.,“Practical Advances in Pit Latrine Emptying Technology”, Rwanda

4. FAWZI, A. et al.,“Support of Manual Pit Emptiers in Freetown, Sierra Leone”, Sierra Leone



[Speakers' Biographies] [Presentations' Abstracts]
TUESDAY, 21 FEBRUARY 2017, 10:30pm – 12:00pm

INDUSTRY 2.1: Tools & Planning [Audio]

1. SONKO, E. M., STRANDE, L.,“Tools for FSM planning in small towns: case study of Bignona, Senegal”, Senegal

2. BLACKETT, I. et al.,“Tools for the assessment and development of sustainable city-wide FSM services”, UK

3. BRUECKNER-SUPRIYONO, M. et al.,“Cooperation AIT and BORDA – on the application of FSM Toolbox in project cities”, Indonesia

INDUSTRY 2.2: Technology Innovations I [Audio]

1. SOLANKI, R. et al.,“SimpliSafi: an off-site sanitation system that vertically integrates waste collection and sludge processing for informal settlements”, UK

2. SOHIER, L.,“Bio-solar purification – a new process to treat domestic wastewater and to turn water and wastes in a safe reusable form”, France

3. FRANCIS, G. et al.,“Biomass Steam Processing (BSP) – Conversion of Biomass to Coal by Steam Conditioning”, Germany

TUESDAY, 21 FEBRUARY 2017, 4:00pm – 5:30pm

INDUSTRY 2.3: FSM as Business [Audio]

1. SINGH, S., SINGH, A.,“Business Model development for FSM insights from Bihar, India”, India

2. SAUER, J., et al.,“Improving Practitioners Knowledge of Market Development Approaches for Use in FSM Programmes”, UK

3. RATH, M., TCHELET, S.,“The Blue Water Company:Operating and Maintaining City-scale FSM systems”, India

INDUSTRY 2.4: Technology Innovations II [Audio]

1. RAMAMOORTHY, R.,“Onsite Domestic Wastewater Treatment using a modified septic tank-effect of hydraulic mixing on pollutant removal”, India

2. SALIAN, P.,“Low-cost pre-cast toilet designs”, Uganda

3. FORBIS-STOKES, A. et al.,“Three years of field experience piloting the anaerobic digestion pasteurization latrine”, USA

4. OSBERT, A. et al.,“DEFAST: From research to market”, Uganda



1. Keynote Presentation: PADMANABHAN, V.,"Experience in Advocating FSM"

2. Keynote Presentation: NADOO, D.,"New Sanitation: The symbiosis opportunity"


[Speakers' Biographies] [Presentations' Abstracts]
WEDNESDAY, 22 FEBRUARY 2017, 10:30pm – 12:00pm

RESEARCH 3.1: Drying & Dewatering [Audio]

1.SEPTIEN STRINGEL, S. et al.,“LaDePa Process for the Drying and Pasteurisation of Faecal Sludge from VIP Latrines by the Means of IR Radiation, and Reuse of the Product”, South Africa

2. TREGO, A. et al.,“Integrated Digestion and Nutrient Recovery to Enhance Value Extraction from Faecal Sludge Treatment”, UK

3. SEMIYAGA, S. et al.,“Dewatering Pre-Treatment of Faecal Sludge in Urban Slums”, Uganda

4. STRANDE, Li. et al.,“Faecal Sludge Dewatering: Two New Research Facilities for a Multi-Directional Approach”, Switzerland

RESEARCH 3.2: Health, Safety, & Hygiene [Audio]

1. BERENDES, D. et al.,“Urban Risk Factors Associated with Enteric Infection in Children: The Role Of Toilets, FSM, and Flooding in a Low-Income Neighborhood of Vellore, India”, India

2. ROMA, E. et al.,“Faecal Sludge Management in Urban and Peri-urban Areas of LMICs: Challenges and Sustainable Solutions”, UK

3. YAKUBU, H.,“Assessment of Public Health Risks from Unsafe Faecal Sludge Management in Accra”, Ghana

4. SURAJA, R. et al.,“Exposure to Faecal Contamination in 3 Low-income Urban Settings: Results from the SaniPath Tool”, India

RESEARCH 3.3: Biotreatment – II [Audio]

1. THOMAS, A. R. et al.,“Decentralized Treatment Strategies For Septage Management”, India

2. ARUMGAM, K. et al.,“Development of On-site Faecal Sludge and Septage Treatment Techniques”, India

3. DEY, D. et al.,“From Research to Implementation: BRAC WASH Initiative for FSM in Urban Areas”, Bangladesh

4. CHANDRAN, K. et al.,“Faecal Sludge Biorefineries based on a Volatile Fatty Acid Platform”, USA

WEDNESDAY, 22 FEBRUARY 2017, 2:30pm – 4:00pm

RESEARCH 3.4: Pit Emptying & Sludge Accumulation Rates [Audio]

1. DE LOS REYES, F. et al.,“The Flexcrevator: An Improved Pit Emptying Technology with Trash Exclusion”, USA

2. RADFORD, J. et al.,“Physical and Financial Performance of Pit Emptying Technologies”, UK

3. DE LOS REYES, F. et al.,“Designing the Next Generation of Pit Emptying Technologies Using a Workshop Approach”, USA

4. RAMAN, R. et al.,“Promoting safe on-site sanitation in urban Tamil Nadu: Case Study of Tiruchirapalli and Periyanaickenpalayam”, India

RESEARCH 3.5: Broad FSM [Audio]

1. RAVIKUMAR, J. et al.,“Financing Non-network Systems for Small Towns: An exploratory analysis”, India

2. DESHUSSES, M. et al.,“Odors and FSM: Impacts and How to Deal with the Stench”, USA

3. PILLAY, S. et al.,“From Research to Commercialisation and Uptake of Sanitation Technology Innovations: The WRC Pour and Low Flush Experience”, South Africa

4. TILLEY, E. et al.,“The Informal Economy of Pit Emptying in Blantyre, Malawi”, Malawi

RESEARCH 3.6: Anaerobic & Chemical Treatment [Audio]

1. BOURGAULT, C. et al.,“The Suitability of Specific Methanogenic Activity Test For Modelling the Ammonia Inhibition of Anaerobic Digestion of Faecal Sludge Samples”, Canada

2. NORDIN, A.,“Ammonia Sanitisation for a Safe Use of Sewage Fractions – From Theory to Practice”, Sweden

3. REDDY, V. and Clifford, G., “Stabilization of Faecal Sludge through Anaerobic digester at Devanahalli”, India

4. SENECAL, J. et al.,“Inactivation Of Ascaris In Urine By Drying In Calcium Hydroxide For Application In The Autarky Toilet”, Sweden



[Speakers' Biographies] [Presentations' Abstracts]
WEDNESDAY, 22 FEBRUARY 2017, 10:30pm – 12:00pm

CASE STUDIES 3.1: Fecal Sludge Treatment [Audio]

1. MUNANKAMI, R. et al.,“Lesson Learned on Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant over Passive Landfill Site”, Bangladesh

2. RAJBHANDARI, al.,“ Faecal Sludge Treatment and Reuse in Emergencies: A Case Study from Mahalaxmi Municipality, Nepal”, Nepal

3. ROBBINS, D. et al.,“Co-treatment of Septage with Municipal Wastewater in Medium Sized Cities in Vietnam”, Vietnam

CASE STUDIES 3.2: Small FSM Businesses in the Market [Audio]

1. LEONIDAS, D., Milinga, M.,“Management of Fecal Sludge (FS) by Private Entrepreneurs for a Sustainable Business Model”, Tanzania and USA

2. MUXIMPUA, O. et al.,“Emerging Lessons on FSM from Maputo, Mozambique”, Mozambique

3. BUSINGYE, J.,“It’s not only the technology: Running a successful pit emptying business in Kampala, Uganda”, Uganda

WEDNESDAY, 22 FEBRUARY 2017, 2:30pm – 4:00pm

CASE STUDIES 3.3: Coordinating FSM Service Providers [Audio]

1. POTTER, A. et al.,“Successful Sludge Enterprises in Small Urban Centres in Zimbabwe”, Zimbabwe

2. DRABBLE, S. et al.,“Citywide coordination of the septage management market in Vizag, India”, India

3. SHARMA, D. ,“Desludging-Operators’ Association – Cesspool operator as key stakeholder in FSM policy”, India



[Speakers' Biographies] [Presentations' Abstracts]
WEDNESDAY, 22 FEBRUARY 2017, 10:30pm – 12:00pm

INDUSTRY 3.1: Learning from Research [Audio]

1. SINDALL, R.,“Findings of the shit flow diagram developed for the city of Durban, South Africa”, South Africa

2. FURLONG, C., et al.,“Lessons learnt from developing SFDs at scale”, UK

3. SPIT, J. et al.,“What is the future of pit emptying and faecal sludge treatment in emergencies”, Netherlands

INDUSTRY 3.2: Addressing the Human Resource Gap in FSM [Audio]

1. KOWSHIK, G. et al.,“Management Information System (MIS) for Integrated FSM services in Tamil Nadu”, India

2. SUGDEN, S.,“The pit falls and problems of monitoring a growing pit emptying process”, USA

3. SCHOEBITZ, L. et al.,“ Monitoring Safely Managed Sanitation in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development – Experience from Uganda”, Switzerland

WEDNESDAY, 22 FEBRUARY 2017, 2:30pm – 4:00pm

INDUSTRY 3.3: FSM Measurement & Evaluation [Audio]

1. AUERBACH, D.,“Encouraging Participatory financing for scaling urban sanitation solutions in growing cities”, Kenya

2. SPIT, J. et al.,“VIA Water Innovations: marketing of faecal sludge valorization endproducts and how these products contribute to a successful sanitation chain”, Netherlands

3. SHAH, G. et al.,“Development Impact bonds for faecal sludge treatment”, USA

4. FELGENHAUER, K. et al.,“Enabling Viable Public-Private Partnerships in Resource Recovery and Reuse for Improved Faecal Sludge Management”, Ghana


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