The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) jointly implemented the “Support to the National Urban Sanitation Policy II (SNUSP II)” Programme to support the Ministry in achieving the targets of the National Urban Sanitation Policy: 100% open defecation-free, healthy and sanitized cities.
To do so, the Programme focused on effective measures against the discharge of untreated wastewater into surface water and groundwater. Together with its partners, SNUSP II prepared and disseminated guidelines for overall urban sanitation plans suitable for medium-sized cities, prepared quality criteria for investment projects and developed manuals for technical solutions. To strengthen the sanitation sector, the Programme provided technical support on systems for managing faecal sludge, operating models for public toilets and systems for non-conventional and decentralized wastewater management as well as capacitated state and city officials in sanitation management.
The Programme’s three-tier approach – interventions at the city, state, and national levels – facilitated the replication and upscaling of the local solutions and promoted the vertical exchange of knowledge, feeding into policy decision-making processes at all three levels and as such enabling a broad impact. The formulation and implementation of City Sanitation Plans (CSPs) was supported through policy advice, capacity building, provision of technical support in developing strategies, standards, guidelines and handholding the actual implementation. For instance, at the city level, SNUSP II was supporting the city of Tirupati and Shimla to improve their public toilet facilities and services. The cities were advised on how to establish and ensure an efficient PTM that covers the different process steps (assessment, planning, strategies, implementation, monitoring and sustainability) and ensures the integration of urban poor and women. The implementation of the state sanitation strategies, citywide sanitation plans and the resulting concrete solutions will ultimately decrease water pollution and improve the sanitation situation in Indian cities, thereby supporting the Government of India’s schemes and missions such as the National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP), Swachh Bharat Mission (Clean India Mission) and Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT).
Partners at the national level
Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD)
The Ministry of Urban Development was responsible for formulating policies, supporting and monitoring programmes and coordinating the activities of various Central Ministries, State Governments and other urban development nodal authorities.
With the National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP), India's Ministry for Urban Development launched in 2008 a comprehensive policy framework for municipal sanitation systems to facilitate their improvement. In 2014, the Government of India reinforced its commitment to improve the sanitation situation in Indian cities by launching the Swachh Bharat Mission (Clean India Mission) and Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) mission. The latter focuses on the creation of infrastructure to improve the quality of life of all, especially the poor and the disadvantaged.
Partners at the state level
The SNUSP II Programme worked in 5 states (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Kerala, Maharashtra and Uttarakhand). In Andhra Pradesh the focus was on public toilet management. Implementing partners are the Directorate of Municipal Administration (DMA) and the Swachh Andhra Corporation.
Partners at the city level for PTM implementation
Tirupati Municipal Corporation (TMC)
The Tirupati Municipality was upgraded into a Corporation in 2007 and operates under the ambit of Andhra Pradesh Municipalities Act 1965. The Corporation administers development-related matters and providing basic civic amenities within the municipal area through 7 administrative sections. The functions and services provided are either obligatory or discretionary in nature. Maintaining public conveniences is one of the functions handled under the Health Department. The Tirupati Corporation uses multiple means to help manage the public conveniences – through its own general funds, or schemes such as Swachh Bharat Mission, etc.
GIZ under the support to the NUSP Phase 1 and 2 has been helping the Tirupati Municipal Corporation on the sustainable management of public toilets. As a result, Tirupati is currently replacing its traditional delivery model to a service- and performance-based delivery mode. This involves the development of new toilet projects using different types of technologies: material quality improvements, self-cleaning toilets, conventional toilets based on the footfall and revenue generation potential.
Shimla Municipal Corporation (SMC)
The Municipal Corporation of Shimla is, under the Himachal Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act 1994 (H.P. Municipal Corporation Act 1994), entrusted with development-related matters of the MC areas and provision of basic civic amenities. The functions and services provided by the MC Shimla, including maintaining public conveniences, are obligatory (entrusted by the Government) and discretionary. Shimla Corporation uses multiple means to help manage public toilets: own general funds, schemes like Swachh Bharat Mission, etc.
Under the NUSP Phase 1 and 2, GIZ has been supporting the Shimla Corporation on the sustainable management of public toilets. As a result, Shimla is envisaging a move from its current delivery model to a service- and performance-based delivery mode. This would involve clustering toilets based on the footfall and revenue generation potential and selecting suitable service providers.