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FSM3 Workshop 4B


FSM Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation: Learning Tools for Faecal Sludge Management: Engagement with New Text Book and Curriculum (Thursday 22 January, 14.00 – 16.30)

Organisations involved: UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, eawag / Sandec

Organizer (main contact person): Martin Mulenga, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Department of Engineering and Water Technology, P.O. Box 3015, 2601 Delft, The Netherlands

Names of workshop facilitators: Tineke Hooijmans, Associate Professor, and Dr. Martin Mulenga, Senior Researcher (UNESCO-IHE), Dr. Linda Strande (Eawag / Sandec)

The workshop was officially opened by Tineke Hooijmans, an Associate Professor at UNESCO-IHE, who gave a brief presentation about aims and objectives of the workshop and how the initiative to develop the curriculum for the new online course on FSM came about.


The workshop was attended by a total of 20 participants from Africa, Asia, Europe and North America from universities/research institutions, governments, NGOs, utilities and the private sector.


*Stimulating Local Innovation on Sanitation for the Urban Poor in Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia: Tineke Hooijmans, UNESCO-IHE

*FSM – Faecal Sludge Management: Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation: Dr. Linda Strande, Eawag / Sandec

*Curriculum Development for Online Course on FSM: Dr. Martin Mulenga, UNESCO-IHE

Group Discussions

The workshop participants were divided into two groups to discuss the existing material in the new book on Faecal Sludge Management. The first group was asked to focus on the chapters dealing with the FSM Technology issues while the second group focused on the Planning and Management chapters of the book.

Each of the two groups was asked to givefeedback on the following questions:

  1. Which target audiences would benefit from an online course on FSM and how could they be reached?
  2. Does the current topics in the new FSM book live up to the needs of people in the field? If not (completely), what is missing?
  3. In addition to the case studies in the book, which other interesting ones could be made available for use in the FSM course or future editions of the book?
  4. Can we let the course serve as a virtual meeting place for a global community of life-long learners?

Group Discussions on Planning and Management Issues (left) and on the Technology sections of the book (right)

Plenary Feedback of Group Discussions

The feedback from both groups has been combined as most of the responses were fairly similar.

1. The target audiences for the new course on FSM which were identified by the two groups are as follows

Municipalities, operators and implementers, academia (lecturers and professors: train the trainees, local adaptation), national government and regulators, city planners and policy makers, NGOs, donors, business model developers, financers, consultants (individual and companies), professional institutions, trade bodies. Different type of course for different audiences - a graduate level and above, but also a high level introduction for non-specialists (e.g. FSM technologies for business men, or for donors): in summary: multiple courses according to the needs.


2. The following topics were identified as missing topics in the book:

a) Front end of sanitation value chain - the impact of condition of containment on faecal sludge. A suggestion was made that this problem could be solved by adding a summary or intro, with reference to Eawag's compendium.
b) Smells and odours.
c) Research methods and analysis, standard operating procedures (SOP).
d) Viscosity of FS, sheer stress, impact on pumping technologies.
e) Integrated FSM - including co-treatment of solid waste, co-collection.
f) Greater focus required on cultural circumstances in planning process
g) Need to increase the number of stakeholders in FSM at different levels
h) Health aspects need to come out more strongly
i) Participation of end user groups and how to get better community engagement needs to be emphasised
j) Materials in the book may be too advanced for some of the key stakeholders
k) Policy makers need to be targeted too
l) More practical examples especially from developing countries


3. Ideas on case studies:

a) Include some integrated case studies: technology and planning and management - may not be too many out there.
b) Documenting existing practices in some places has a huge potential for the implementers to learn from. Case studies should not just be about educating students, but lessons must be learnt for future improvements
c) Standard guidelines for assessing case studies - what was the barrier that needed to be overcome, what was the success, was it sustainable?


4. Need for virtual meeting space:

a) Very valuable but should not be at a risk of duplication and dilution of existing efforts such as SUSANA. Coordination may therefore be needed
b) The virtual meeting place could tap into existing networks such as alumni networks etc
c) May help to regionalize FSM activities.


5. General/other comments:

- The initiative to develop an online course on FSM is long overdue and will enable more people to gain more knowledge about this new but vital field in sanitation.
- The curriculum for the course should continuously be revised so that it captures any new developments
- The book should be translated in other languages such as French and Spanish (A Spanish version is currently being translated will be available in the very near future).


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