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FSM3 Workshop 4A


FSM Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation: Research into Practice: Towards standardization of FS quantification and characterization on a city-wide scale (Thursday 22 January, 09.00 – 12.30)

Organisations involved: UKZN and eawag / Sandec

Lead organizer: EAWAG/SANDEC

Key contacts responsible for developing and presenting the main components of the workshop: EAWAG/SANDEC: Dr. Linda Strande, Senior scientist, Ms Magalie Bassan, PhD candidate, Mr. Lars Schoebitz (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.), Project Officer and Mr. Moritz Gold, Project Officer; UKZN: Prof. Chris Buckley, Senior scientist, Pollution Research Group, Ms Lungi Zuma, Chemical Engineer, eThekwini/ Pollution Research Group and Dr. Konstantina Velkushanova, Research Fellow, Pollution Research Group

For further reading and publications see Sandec and Pollution Research Group homepages.



The workshop is aiming at presenting, collecting and creating knowledge on the current state of art for faecal sludge quantification and characterization with the overall goal of working towards the design and development of appropriate faecal sludge treatment technology infrastructure. Standard accepted methods for sampling, analyzing and estimating flows of faecal sludge do not exist, which contributes to the high variability of observed results. Applied laboratory methods for characterization are often adapted from wastewater analysis and in many cases do not fit the context for faecal sludge analysis. There is no consensus about the adaptation of wastewater methods in addition to the added difficulty of faecal sludge being divergent and heterogeneous in its characteristics. Participants can expect an event focused on four key learning objectives, which are drawing on extensive field experience, showcased by presentations of stakeholders in the field. A core part of the workshop is a participatory and interactive learning activity, which will contribute to a lively discussion and learning experience.

Rationale / Purpose

Participants can expect an event focused on four key learning objectives, which are drawing on extensive field experience, showcased by presentations of stakeholders in the field. A core part of the workshop is a participatory and interactive learning activity, which will contribute to a lively discussion and learning experience.

Specific learning objectives

By the end of the workshop, it is intended that all participants will be familiar with:

  1. Be able to determine the most appropriate sampling location (e.g. during discharge, inside pit latrine/septic tank)
  2. Have a detailed in-depth understanding of the key elements needed to design a sampling campaign for faecal sludge quantification and characterization on a city-wide scale, including consideration of the local context
  3. Learn to apply quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) measures, as well as data organization and storage to produce more transparent results along the entire faecal sludge sampling chain
  4. Develop an understanding for the need of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for physical and chemical faecal sludge laboratory analysis
Expected outcomes
  • Identify steps that need to be taken towards standardization of methods for quantifying and characterizing faecal sludge
  • Compilation of best practices for faecal sludge sampling and analyses
  • Discussion of how to best approach the creation of a knowledge hub on applied methods for faecal sludge quantification and characterization
  • Discussion on how to create a database for quantities and characteristics of faecal sludge for cities around the world


*Research into practice: The influence of sampling location on FS characteristics: Magalie Bassan, Eawag, EPFL, Lungi Zuma, Pollution Research Group, University of KwaZulu-Natal

*How to approach faecal sludge quantification and characterisation on a city-wide scale: Lars Schoebitz, Eawag

*Producing transparent results through appropriate QA/QC, data organization and storage: Moritz Gold, Eawag

*Development of standard operating procedures for faecal sludge laboratory analyses: Tina Velkushanova, Merlien Reddy, Pollution Research Group, University of KwaZulu-Natal

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