The 3rd International Dry Toilet Conference was held in Tampere, Finland, on 12-15 August 2009 and was organised by the Global Dry Toilet Association of Finland in cooperation with Tampere University of Technology, University of Tampere and Tampere University for Applied Sciences.
184 delegates from 47 countries gathered together to discuss various aspects of dry/ecological sanitation.The main theme of the conference has been the evaluation of achievements in sanitation after the International year of Sanitation and the influence of dry toilets to help to reach the Millennium Development Goals. Special focus was given to health aspects related to dry sanitation.
- Promoting ecological sanitation in order to achieve MDG’s
- Health and safety aspects related to sanitation
- Technical development of Dry Toilets
- Prospects and challenges in reuse of excreta
- Social, Cultural, Economic and Gender related aspects of dry sanitation
- Implementing ecological sanitation in emergencies
- Sustainable sanitation for tourism and recreation
Official website: http://www.drytoilet.org/
Session 1 PROMOTING ECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE MDG'S
Chair: Arno Rosemarin, Sweden
Key-note Vishvanath Srikantaiah*, Chitra Vishwanath, G.Sridevi, Dr Srinivasamurthy, India:
"Composting Toilet - The Bangalore, India experience"
Evat Kandongo, Namibia:
Sustainable sanitation in Namibia's lowest income urban areas: "The potential of composting toilets"
Sanna-Leena Rautanen, Finland:
"To dry or not to dry?-People matter in scaling up dry sanitation"
Jamshed Ulmasov, Tajikistan:
"Dry Toilets in Tajikistan"
Kalawati Pokharel*, Sushil Subedi, Nepal:
"Sustainable sanitation beyond Taps & Toilet"
Innocent Kamara*, J.C.Ssepembwa, C.B. Niwagaba, J.F.Kamara, Uganda: "Prevalence of Ecological sanitation uptake and associated factors in Kabale municipality, Uganda
Session 2 HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS RELATED TO DRY SANITATION
Chair: Tuula Tuhkanen, Finland
Key-note Heikki Vuorinen, Finland:
"Toilets and health throughout history"
Gina Itchon*, Robert Holmer, Luisa Tan, The Philippines:
"The public health safety of using human excreta from urine diverting toilets for agriculture: The Philippine experience"
Narendra Gemawat, India:
"Dry Toilet - A boon to rural community"
Graciela Sanguinetti*, A.M. Ingallinella, V. Ferrer, Argentina:
"Ecological sanitation: inactivation of pathogens in faeces from dry toilet - grey water disposal"
Bistra Mihaylova*, Bulgaria, Yulia Yablonskaia, Belarus:
"From pit latrine to a safe and sustainable toilet."
Oliver Odikamnoro*, Ifeanyi Ikeh, Nigeria:
"Possible public health implication of excreta re-use in poorly sanitated rural farming communities of Ebonyi state, South-East Nigeria"
Session 3 IMPLEMENTING ECOLOGICAL SANITATION IN EMERGENCIES
Chair: Eeva-Liisa Viskari, Finland
Key-note Andreas Koestler, Norway:
"Sanitation in the disaster cycle - immediate response, preparedness and risk reduction"
Karamat Ali, Pakistan:
"Provision of Dry Toilets in earthquake hit areas of Pakistan - learning from first hand experience"
Zahidul Mamun, Bangladesh:
"Eco-toilet for disaster preparedness"
Antoine Delepière*, Switzerland:
"Introducing ecological sanitation in emergency: Some lessons learned from a pilot project Bangladesh"
Julie Patinet, France:
"Sanitation in IDP and refugee camps in Chad: the current and future challenges"
Session 4a PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES IN RE-USE OF EXCRETA
Chair: Joachim Behrendt, Germany
Key-note Blanca Jimenez, Mexico:
"Pathogens of concern for developing countries and risk of reusing ecosan sludge in agriculture"
Helvi Heinonen-Tanski, Finland:
"Urine from separating toilets for non-edible plants"
Wolfgang Berger, Germany:
"From pit latrine to nutrient conservation"
Hector Kpangon*, G. Biaou, Benin:
"Re-use of human's urine in market-gardening in South-Benin: financial returns analysis"
Mogues Worku, Ethiopia:
"Biogas generation - a multi-dimensional development approach"
Session 4b PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES IN RE-USE OF EXCRETA continues
Chair: Blanca Jimenez, Mexico
Eeva-Liisa Viskari*1), Marjukka Dyer1), Seija Haapamäki, Samira Hamdine, Jacqueline Mwakangale, Surendra Pradhan2), Päivi Karinen2), Helvi Heinonen-Tanski2), Finland:
"Dry toilet compost and separated urine as fertilisers for cabbage and potato - a case study from Finland"
Kennedy Ojwando* , Dr. Mutua B.M, Kenya:
"Prospects and Challenges in the reuse of human excreta in Nakuru Municipality, Kenya"
Gordana Kranjac-Berisavljevic*, Owusu Agyeman, F.,Ghana:
"Use of Faecal Sludge for Agriculture in Tamale Metropolis: perception of Farmers, Consumers and Relevant Agencies"
Linus Dagerskog, Burkina Faso:
"Positive spin offs using mobile urinals and UD toilets in Burkina Faso"
Nilusha Patapendi*, D. Wickramasinghe, S. Karunarathne, Sri Lanka:
"Study on the compost produced by compost bins and ecosan latrines and survey on knowledge attitudes and practices in usage of compost bins and ecosan latrines"
Session 5 CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTING ECOLOGICAL SANITATION
Chair: Pekka Pietilä, Finland
Miguel Zavala, Mexico:
"Evaluation of social and cultural acceptance of the biotoilet system"
Claudia Delgado Rodríguez, Columbia:
"Social representattions of hygiene and excretes disposal - The case of ecological dry toilets introduction in Quibdo and Tumaco-Columbia"
Mia O'Neill, Finland:
"Towards a common goal. The challenges of the sanitation sector in Zambia"
Obed Kawanga*, Tsoka Phiri , Dimas Chipalala, Zambia:
"Living with the marginalised: Addressing the socio-economic and cultural aspects in implementing Oka-Dry Toilets in Madimba; case of Lusaka"
Sari Huuhtanen*, Finland; Michelo Katambo, Zambia:
"The challenge of social change; experiences from Zambia dry-sanitation project (ZASP, 2006-2008)"
Session 6 GENDER ASPECTS RELATED TO DRY SANITATION
Chair: Tapio Katko, Finland
Claudia Wendland*, Margriet Samwel, Germany:
"Gender aspects of ecological sanitation with urine diverting dry toilets"
Bimala Prajapati*, Sunil Kumar Das, Chet Raj Joshi, Nepal:
"Female local latrine builders: Contributing towards objectives of International Year of Sanitation, 2008"
Rehema Bavuma Namaganda, Uganda:
"Women and ecological sanitation"
Mosleh Sadeque, Bangladesh:
"Promotion of dry toilets for reducing vulnerability for the poor women having Islamic and cultural values in urban slums of Bangladesh"
Session 7a TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DRY TOILETS
Chair: Harri Mattila, Finland
Key-note Joachim Behrendt, Germany:
"Is the Agricultural utilisation of Treated Urine and Faces recommendable?"
Ryusei Ito*, Hiroki Yamazaki, Naoyuki Funamizu, Japan:
"Developing low cost composting toilet for developing countries"
Sergiu Andreev*, Vitalie Samoil, Moldova:
"Solar thermal sanitation of human faeces - an affordable solution for ensuring sustainability of EcoSan activities"
Mohammed Masoom*, Naoyuki Funamizu, Ryusei Ito, Japan:
"Feasibility assessment of application of onsite volume reduction system (OVRS) for source-separated urine"
Elisabeth v. Münch, Germany; Camilla Wirseen*, Sweden; Deepa Patel, Ashley Wheaton, Alexander Jachnow:
"Urban slum dwellers in Kenya and Bangladesh benefit from using Peepoo bags which are self-sanitising and biodegradable"
Side event SUSTAINABLE SANITATION FOR TOURISM AND RECREATION
Chair: Tom Frisk, Finland
David Shields*, John Cant, United Kingdom:
"Toilet provision in the Cairngorms national park, Scotland, UK"
Tatyana Regerand*, Yu. Protasov, Russia; J. Laurila, Finland:
"Experience of biotoilet installations on Kizhi island, Republic of Karelia, Russia"
Rauf Sabitov, Kazakhstan:
"Promotion of sustainable development of rural communities around especially protected natural areas in Kazakhstan"
Leena Mehtätalo, Finland:
"Public toilets and care practices in nature parks in Finland, current situation and recommendations for improvement"
Session 7b TECHICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DRY TOILETS continues
Chair: Andreas Koestler, Norway
Kaj Paavola*, Raini Kiukas, Finland:
"From the outhouse to indoor dry toilets in Finland"
Aguru Tanaka*, Naoyuki Funamizu, Ryusei Ito, Mohammed Masoom, Japan:
"Estimation of water evaporation rate from composting toilet"
Martin Oldenburg*, Franziska Meinzinger, Germany,:
"Implementation of urine-diverting dry toilets in multi-storey apartment buildings in Ethiopia"
Arno Rosemarin, Sweden:
Dry sanitation in multi-story apartment buildings: "The case of Dongsheng, Inner Mongolia, China"
Joseph Jenkins, USA:
"The humanure toilet"
Session 8 CAPACITY BUILDING
Chair: Viswanath Srikantaiah
Mats Johansson*, Elisabeth Kvarnström, Anna Richert Stintzing, Sweden:
"Going to scale with urine diversion in Sweden - From individual households to municipal systems in 15 years"
Fedde Jorritsma, The Netherlands:
"The processes of adaption during the introducing urine diverting toilets in Kyrgyzstan"
Matthew Matimbwi, Tanzania:
"Influence of social, cultural, economic and gender aspects in dry toilet as eco-sanitation tool. Case study of Sukuma-nomadic community in Malinyi, Tanzania."
Rahul Ingle*, Christian Rieck and Elisabeth v. Münch:
"Experiences with ecosan systems to provide sustainable sanitation for schools in Kenya and India"
Ayumi Matsuzaka, Japan & Piia Salmi, Finland:
"Gold Factory - An experimental art project with dry toilets"
- Bharat Sapkota
- Helvi Heinonen-Tanski
- Innocent Kamara
- Innocent Kamara
- Itaru Takahashi
- Linus Dagerskog and Amah Klutsé
- Outi Kaarela and Tuula Tuhkanen
- Piyasena Wellakkage
- Ritu Chaulagain and Gira Basnet
- Surayo Saidova
- Turku AMK
- Santosh Shrestra and Jagar Nath Shah