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Sanitation Library

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WaterAid Pakistan commissioned this rapid assessment research on the knowledge, practices and perspectives of sanitation workers and solid waste collectors about Covid-19 pandemic in Pakistan. The specific objectives of research were to understand the knowledge, practices and concerns of sanitation and waste workers regarding coronavirus, and; to find out the gaps and come up with recommendations …

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Nepal imposed a nationwide lockdown from March 25 until June 14, 2020 to contain the spread of COVID-19.
Sanitation and waste workers had to continue providing essential services during the lockdown despite the risk of exposure to coronavirus prevailed. This added risk to occupational and environmental health hazards they regularly face, including illness, injury, and even death. Although these …

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The Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP) has been supporting the Government of Tamil Nadu (GoTN) in achieving total sanitation in the state, and are demonstrating innovations in two model urban locations – Tiruchirappali Corporation, and Periyanaicken-palayam (PNP) and Narasimhanaicken-palayam (NNP) town panchayats. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) is supporting …

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Sanitation workers provide services that are essential to public health, but often under terrible and hazardous working conditions. WaterAid Tanzania’s assessment highlighted the challenges they face and put forward the following recommendations for the Government and sanitation stakeholders:

• Advocate for the recognition of sanitation workers.
• Develop the capacity of Local …

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The Preamble to the Indian Constitution secures to all citizens of India equality of status and opportunity. Equality of opportunity means to give equal chance to every individual for the development of his/her capacity.

Education is a Fundamental Right under Article 21 (A) of the Constitution of India. The Constitution of India under Directive Principles as well as Fundamental Duties also …

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There are twin tragedies that are involved in the continued prevalence of manual scavenging in our society. And one tragedy makes the other more tragic. Firstly, it is unfortunate that a country which boasts to be the world’s biggest democracy is still impervious to the fact that we have allowed people (largely women) to be involved with the practice of manual scavenging and cleaning of sewers, …

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While sanitation workers already face several health and safety risks, financial challenges and stigma due to the nature of their work and caste-based discrimination, the COVID-19 pandemic has further added to their challenges and vulnerabilities. The Urban Management Centre and WaterAid India jointly conducted a rapid assessment to understand the health, safety and social security challenges …

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In the 64th year of the Republic the nation, it was recognized formally through a legislative act, for the second time after the initial 1993 act, that the “dehumanising practice of manual scavenging, arising from the continuing existence of insanitary latrines and a highly iniquitous caste system” that “still persists in various parts of the country” needs to be eradicated and those in …

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In India, gender and caste plays a dominant role in the kinds of jobs that women in the workforce are employed in. It is well established that caste and patriarchy are the main compulsive factors that force people, especially women of the specific scheduled caste communities, into manual scavenging. They are into different forms of manual scavenging, mainly cleaning the insanitary dry latrines …

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Safe collection, handling and transport of fecal sludge is an integral part of septage management. Limited attention has been paid to the safe collection, transport, disposal and treatment of human excreta from septic tanks. Motorised emptying and transport involves a truck with a standalone or mounted vacuum pump along with a storage tank that is used to empty and transport septage. Typically, …

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Sanitation workers are the backbone of the public hygiene and waste management system. Despite providing an essential public service, their work is often unrecognised. A majority of the workers too are unaware of the social security and welfare schemes instituted by both the Central and State governments for their wellbeing, which prevents them from availing the benefits such as pension, …

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This report presents options for how to carry out a quantification and profiling through assessments of workers at city level. The report contains the suggested scope for a sanitation worker assessment, the dimensions to be assessed, questionnaires that could be used to generate data on these different dimensions, and possible options for presentation of both quantitative and qualitative data. …

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Sanitation workers provide an essential public service to reach Sustainable Development Goal 6.2, but often at the cost of their dignity, safety, health, and living conditions. A key barrier to providing support for this profession is the insufficient data on sanitation workers and their work environment. As such, the aim of this assessment was to explore opportunities to support sanitation …

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Sanitation workers provide an essential public service to reach Sustainable Development Goal 6.2, but often at the cost of their dignity, safety, health, and living conditions. A key barrier to providing support for this profession is the insufficient data on sanitation workers and their work environment. As such, the aim of this assessment was to explore opportunities to support sanitation …

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Sanitation workers in India, usually belonging to the most vulnerable and marginalized caste groups and communities, had already been facing several challenges including health risks, low and irregular wages, financial struggles, societal discrimination, and lack of access to social security measures. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in additional struggles for them, as some of them were required …

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The Compendium is available in English and Arabic. It covers the following topics:
(A) Decentralized Wastewater Management in the light of Adaptation to Climate Change
(B) Domestic Wastewater Reuse in the Context of Decentralized Wastewater Management in Jordan for Climate Change Adaptation
(C) Business Models for Decentralized Wastewater Management in Jordan
(D) Social acceptance as a …

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Faecal sludge management is the collection, transport, treatment and reuse or disposal of faecal sludge from pit latrines, septic tanks and other on-site sanitation technologies, and is crucial to achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. You can use this guide as a reference document to help create better sanitation programmes, specifically to make sure sanitation is safely managed for …

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Enhancing sanitation services is a major challenge for sustainable development and plans.
This work aims at developing a vulnerability hotspot mapping for improving sanitation services provision
in Jordan based on a multi-weighted criteria model. Multiple spatial, physical, demographic,
social, economic, and sanitation data were collected and compiled using GIS. We also considered
experts’ …

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The Sanitation Workers Project is a structured, first-of-its-kind 5-month long study of sanitation workers across India carried out by Dalberg Advisors in 2017.
The state of sanitation workers remains a blind spot, as workers face significant challenges on multiple fronts – financial, health and social. To develop a blueprint with solutions for this murky problem, we interacted with all the …

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The Amathole District Municipality (ADM) is in the central part of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The Amathole DM covers 200 km of coastline of the Indian Ocean in the south to the Amathole Mountains in the north. The DM jurisdiction includes large parts of the previously disadvantaged Ciskei and Transkei homelands. The land of the DM is 21,229 square kilometres (km2) (Amathole District …

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The uMshwathi Local Municipality is the largest of the six smaller local municipalities in the uMgungundlovu District Municipality. The local municipality is in an area that was largely under the control of tribal authorities until very recently. There are towns, however, that were built by German immigrants some 150 years ago. The land area of uMshwati LM is approximately 1,866 square kilometres …

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For a wholistic approach of any project, the gender dimension should be included. The Jaffna Healthy City Project is also not an exception. The one out of three-sub pillars of Healthy City Project is WASH in Schools. In a gender inclusive perspective, WASH in Schools included Menstrual Health and Hygiene (MHH). There are 10 schools from Jaffna city included for Jaffna Healthy City project. Out of …

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Recent researches show that Afghan women and girls face many challenges in managing their menstrual cycle or menstruation. They do not have access to sufficient facilities and face discriminatory customs and traditions in the family and society. This issue has made it difficult for them to observe proper health conditions and cleanliness during menstruation.

About 70 percent of girls do not …

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Sanitation workers provide a fundamental public service. Yet they often face extreme health hazards and safety risks on the job. In many developing countries, they are informal workers with no legal protections or rights. With a lack of visibility in society, they can be stigmatized, marginalized and ignored.

Here are the stories of five sanitation workers in their own words.

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