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206 Views
6 Downloads

ENPHO and BORDA have been working in partnership since 2004 to improve living conditions and to protect natural resources and climatic conditions in inadequately served urban and peri-urban settlements in South Asia. Concentrated in the field of urban sanitation, key achievements include technical support and scaling up of Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATS), introducing Faecal …

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614 Views
35 Downloads

Demonstration of Pro-poor Market-based Solutions for Faecal Sludge Management in Urban Areas of Southern Bangladesh is a project implemented by SNV Netherlands Development Organisation in partnership with Khulna City Corporation, Jhenaidah and Kushtia Paurashavas. Improvement of working conditions in sludge emptying and transportation is identified as a major area of action under the project. In …

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360 Views
2 Downloads

In Bangladesh, the most commonly used sanitation options such as pit-latrines and pour-flush latrine use pits or septic tanks for containing faecal sludge (FS) for a certain period of time which require regular emptying when the tanks or pits become full. This emptying and disposing of faecal sludge is usually performed in a traditional (manual) way by a certain group of people in the society …

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240 Views
9 Downloads

The main objective of this baseline study was to understand the current situation of faecal sludge management (FSM) and practices of residential premises in three cities in southern Bangladesh: Khulna, Kushtia and Jhenaidah. A second objective was to establish a benchmark for the FSM programme.

The baseline consists of two parts:
1) A quantitative part measuring access to sanitation, hygiene …

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471 Views
9 Downloads

The current document presents the City Sanitation Plan for PNP. PNP is one of the cluster towns selected for implementing fecal sludge management in Tamil Nadu. This plan is curated from the sanitation situation analysis which included identifying major components of sanitation (water supply, storm water drainage and solid waste management), issues related to it, and possible solutions.

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284 Views
11 Downloads

Faecal sludge management is recognized globally as an essential component of city-wide inclusive sanitation. However, a major gap in developing appropriate and adequate management and monitoring for faecal sludge is the ability to understand and predict the characteristics and volumes of accumulated faecal sludge, and correlations to source populations. Since standard methods for sampling and …

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399 Views
136 Downloads

After achieving the target of universal coverage of individual household toilet, Swachh Bharat Mission Gramin is working towards addressing the menace of solid and liquid waste management (SLWM) to ensure clean and healthy villages.

Government of Chhattisgarh has taken a sustainable approach to address solid and liquid waste in the state. SBM-G has adopted decentralized processes for waste …

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196 Views
16 Downloads

The training focuses on developing capacities of all the stakeholders including operators, service providers, Municipal Corporation, elected representatives etc.

This training aims at conveying the key concepts and how to do the operation and maintenance of community toilets and management of feacal sludge in an effective manner, what are the basic non-negotiable elements versus want are the …

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344 Views
26 Downloads

This ten year sanitation strategy for rural areas in India, prepared by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS), Ministry of Jal Shakti, Government of India, in consultation with State Governments and other stakeholders, lays down the framework for achieving this long term vision. The strategy is intended to guide, local governments, policy makers, implementers and all relevant …

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196 Views
8 Downloads

The brochure summarizes the FSM project piloted in Dhenkanal, Odisha, and the journey the district undertook to become one of first districts to have 'safely managed' sanitation systems in India.

The Project is being implemented in the Dhenkanal district in the state of Odisha in consultation and partnership with the Panchayat Raj and Drinking Water Department and Housing and Urban Development …

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193 Views
7 Downloads

As a first step toward the goal of clean and sanitised villages, the state has issued the Odisha Rural Sanitation Policy in October 2020 that guides and enables sanitation interventions in rural areas over a ten-year horizon. In operationalising the Policy and in line with the objectives of SBM-G Phase II, Dhenkanal district in the state, with support from UNICEF and the Centre for Policy …

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218 Views
3 Downloads

Wayanad's pilot project on faecal sludge management (FSM) has encouraged risk-informed programming, innovation, in the sanitation sector. A unique waste management system has been commissioned in Wayanad that uses vermifiltration (use of worms) to process waste and turn it into compost and useable greywater.

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290 Views
0 Downloads

The Government of Kerala became open defecation free in 2016, allowing it to tackle the next challenge on the sanitation cycle - Faecal Sludge management. With funding support and supervision from UNICEF, and technical implementation by PriMove and TBF Environmental Solutions, Wayanad district constructed a Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant (FSTP) that uses earthworms to filter through the waste and …

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346 Views
29 Downloads

Faecal sludge management is essential to consolidate the gains from Swachh Bharat Mission. This is a toolkit in Hindi for practitioners for FSM in rural India. This toolkit in Hindi is a useful toolkit for managing faecal sludge in rural areas. It fills a gap in know-how and is of use to planners and practitioners to improve the management of faecal sludge in rural areas. It will be useful to …

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670 Views
94 Downloads

This toolkit (in English) is intended for practitioners and designers of faecal sludge management systems. It is a useful toolkit for managing faecal sludge in rural areas. It fills a gap in know-how and is of use to planners and practitioners to improve the management of faecal sludge in rural areas. While written with India in mind, it can be used in other developing countries.

A hindi …

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406 Views
4 Downloads

The Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), the flagship sanitation scheme of the Government of
India has revolutionized India’s sanitation landscape. However, there are still gaps which
need to be bridged to sustain and build upon the success realized. This article by the
UNICEF India water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) team highlights why faecal sludge
management is the next practical step to …

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338 Views
11 Downloads

This leaflet in English presents a summary of the national policies and some initiatives to manage faecal sludge from around the country. It ends with suggestions for managing faecal sludge covering technology, community engagement and tariffs.

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385 Views
23 Downloads

The Faecal Sludge and Septage Management: Service Business Models shares leading practices and innovations to improve how faecal sludge is managed, and how to expand services to the millions of people living in thousands of cities in urban India, lacking access to safely managed sanitation.

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466 Views
18 Downloads

UNICEF and the Water Supply and Sanitation Department of Maharashtra developed a manual to appraise government and village functionaries about the technical aspects, legal provisions, service value chain of FSM, relevant technologies of containment, collection, transportation and methodology for planning, implementation and monitoring of FSM projects.

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226 Views
6 Downloads

This report explores ways by which private sector engagement in FSSM can be successfully accelerated by looking at potential business opportunities and challenges in FSSM, lessons that can be learned from current FSSM practice and finally, key takeaways for the key stakeholders in the ecosystem. While each of these segments touch upon separate aspects of the FSSM ecosystem, the common thread of …

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551 Views
20 Downloads

The central questions that this thematic note seeks to address include: What can municipalities learn about creating a conducive enabling environment for faecal sludge management (FSM)? How can engineers create Faecal sludge treatment plant (FSTP) designs that work well on the ground both technically and financially?

The Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) has made significant strides in addressing …

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533 Views
12 Downloads

Namami Gange (a national mission for cleaning the Ganga River) is not just about physical cleaning of the river, it is about rejuvenating it and ensuring that it is ever flowing (Aviral) with clean (Nirmal) water. To achieve the same, a comprehensive approach is required which cuts across a lot of sectors. Human excreta (wastewater, faecal sludge, and supernatant) is one of the main causes for …

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1099 Views
99 Downloads

An excreta flow diagram (also often described as shit flow diagram, SFD) presents a clear picture of the outcome arising from wastewater and faecal sludge management practices and services in a city or town. This is expressed in terms of the percentage of the population. An accompanying report describes the service delivery context of the city or town.

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773 Views
48 Downloads

Worldwide over the last years, a shift has taken place in the acceptance of faecal sludge management (FSM). It is now considered by many to be a viable solution alongside sewer-based systems in achieving citywide inclusive sanitation, and faecal sludge treatment plants (FSTPs) are starting to be constructed throughout Asia and Africa. For example, more than 40 FSTPs started operation in India and …

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1752 Views
128 Downloads

This Resource Book is a compilation of important Govt of India Advisories and other Knowledge Resources relating to Urban Sanitation and COVID. National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA) along with the National Faecal Sludge and Septage Management (NFSSM) Alliance Partners, has taken up this initiative of creating a repository of important government advisories and practitioners’ guidance …

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2012 Views
268 Downloads

From December 2016, the German-funded project ClimateFriendly Sanitation Services in Peri-Urban Areas of Lusaka (CFS-Lusaka) implemented by GIZ on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) supported stakeholders to strengthen on-site sanitation (OSS) and safe faecal sludge management (FSM) in the fast-growing Zambian capital within the context of the …

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1217 Views
74 Downloads

The Three Cities On-Site Sanitation (OSS) and Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) Knowledge Exchange (KEx) Case study provides detailed highlights of the capacity development initiative that was undertaken in three sub-Saharan African cities; Kampala (Uganda), Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) andLusaka (Zambia). The KEx initiative was aimed at enabling keystakeholders from the three cities municipalities/ …

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885 Views
53 Downloads

Mysuru City is situated in southern part of the state at 770 m above sea level. According to the census 2011, the population of Mysuru was 893,062 and number of households (HH) were 209,650. Overall, the SFD Graphic depicts that 72% of excreta is safely managed while 28% is discharged untreated to the environment. Wastewater through sewer systems is generated by 92% of the total population of the …

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1435 Views
264 Downloads

Lalitpur Metropolitan city which literary means ‘the city of fine arts’ is located in Lalitpur district of Province no.3 of Nepal. The city consist of 29 wards with the total population of 284,922 people residing in 70,256 households. The main sources of drinking water in the city are taps (municipal water supply), tap water (bore water) and wells. Majority of the population of Lalitpur …

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1888 Views
404 Downloads

Godawari Municipality is located in Lalitpur District in Province No. 3 of Nepal. The municipality consist of 14 wards with the total population of 116,045 residing in 18,232 households. The majority of the population use lined tanks with impermeable walls and open bottom followed by fully lined tanks, lined pits with semi-permeable walls and open bottom, pits (all types) never emptied but …

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1371 Views
141 Downloads

Dakshinkali Municipality is located in Kathmandu District in Province No. 3 of Nepal. The total population is 24,297 people residing in 6,925 households. Majority of the population (80%) are dependent on public taps and the remaining 20% of population are dependent on spring water. 14% of the population depend on an offsite sanitation system but most of the population in Dakshinkali Municipality …

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1044 Views
42 Downloads

This report presents results of the project 'Circular economy in sanitation for agriculture – Faecal sludge management with cocomposting for vegetables cultivation in the Nilgiris', which started in 2017 and is funded under the Securing Water for Food programme and the FINISH Mondial programme.

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1516 Views
228 Downloads

Budhanilkantha Municipality is located in Kathmandu District in Province No. 3 of Nepal with a total population of 153,303 people residing in 32,039 households. Most of the population are dependent on the sewer system followed by fully lined tanks, lined tanks with impermeable walls and open bottom, septic tanks, user interface directly connected to open drain and lined pits with semi-permeable …

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1516 Views
205 Downloads

Bhaktapur Municipality is located in Bhaktapur district of Province no.3 of Nepal. The total number of people is 81,748, living in 17,639 households. Majority of the population of Bhaktapur Municipality are dependent on public water supply and their own source such as well and tap water. Mostly, the population of Bhaktapur Municipality
are dependent on sewer system followed by fully lined tanks, …

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1458 Views
144 Downloads

Bangalore, the capital city of Karnataka is the third largest city and the fifth largest metropolitan area in India and is fast growing. It is a centre for education, IT and biotechnology, advanced health care and is home to many more Multi National Corporations (MNCs) which attract people to the city. As per Census 2011, the population of Bangalore City was about 8.5 million. Overall, the SFD …

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575 Views
6 Downloads

The Training Needs Assessment of masons was conducted to identify the required training needs based on the current levels of education and training of masons, their current level of knowledge and practices in toilet construction, and the construction of on-site containment structures. The findings from the study provide an insight in to the knowledge and practice gaps of masons and help identify …

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3404 Views
244 Downloads

The sanitation workforce provides an essential public service to all. They clean and empty pit latrines, septic tanks, sewers and other sanitation systems, transport faecal sludge, remove contaminants from the sludge and process the sludge for disposal or reuse. Constantly exposed to faecal microorganisms, hazardous waste and harsh chemicals, sanitation workers are susceptible to several …

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1218 Views
54 Downloads

Tarakeshwor Municipality is located in Kathmandu district in Province no. 3 of Nepal. The total population of the municipality is 81,443 people residing on 20,133 households. Most people are dependent on public water supply. Households without access to public water supply rely on well and tap water. 38% of population are dependent on sewer system, followed by user interface directly connected to …

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1663 Views
199 Downloads

Nagarjun Municipality is located in Kathmandu district in Province no. 3 of Nepal. The total population of the municipality is 67,420 people residing in 16,746 households. The major sources of drinking water in Nagarjun Municipality are public water supply, well, springs and stream water. More than half of the population of Nagarjun Municipality is dependent on the sewer system followed by lined …

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1976 Views
149 Downloads

Madhyapur Thimi Municipality is located in Bhaktapur district in Province no.3 of Nepal, consisting of 9 wards. The total population of the municipality is 83,036 residing in 20,302 households. Combined sewers are predominantly found in Madhyapur Thimi Municipality, followed by lined tanks with impermeable walls and open bottom, lined pits with semi-permeable walls and open bottom with no outlet …

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1695 Views
238 Downloads

Kageshwori Manohara Municipality is located in Kathmandu district in Province No.3 of Nepal. The total population of the municipality is 102,235 residing in 26,166 households. People rely on either municipal water supply or from other sources. The main sources of drinking water are public tap, well and household bore water.
27% of the population are dependent on centralized combined sewer, 33% …

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648 Views
32 Downloads

Worldwide over the last years, a shift has taken place in the acceptance of faecal sludge management (FSM). It is now considered by many to be a viable solution alongside sewer-based systems in achieving citywide inclusive sanitation, and faecal sludge treatment plants (FSTPs) are starting to be constructed throughout Asia and Africa. For example, more than 40 FSTPs started operation in India and …

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1580 Views
77 Downloads

Building on the success of the first four International FSM Conferences in Chennai (2017), Hanoi (2015) and in Durban (2011& 2012), the FSM5 conference brought together professionals working in the sector, including utilities, service providers, cities, governments, academics, scientists, consultants, donors and industries, to support the global initiative of disseminating sustainable solutions …

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1879 Views
99 Downloads

Bheemdatt municipality is located in Kanchanpur District of Sudur Paschim Pradesh, Nepal. The municipality covers an area of 171.63 square kilometres. It is home to 62,050 people as per census 2011. The municipality, which has been declared Open Defecation Free Zone on November 2017, is divided into 19 wards.

The municipality has a stormwater drain in core urban areas but lacks municipal …

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1082 Views
133 Downloads

In Spanish: Este webinar nos mostrará diferentes experiencias en la gestión de lodos fecales, evaluando la magnitud de esta problemática y las principales limitaciones que deben ser superadas para mejorar la gestión de lodos fecales en nuestra región.

Esa entrada de la biblioteca contiene las presentaciónes del webinar 2: "Gestión de lodos fecales en zonas urbanas"

- Gestión de …

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790 Views
44 Downloads

With increased urbanization and regulatory scrutiny, the ability of humanitarian agencies to use the simple pit latrine to safely manage human waste in emergencies will decline. When a latrine is not suitable, the response options become exponentially more complicated. Different toilets must be constructed. The contents must then be removed and treated. This is as complicated and expensive as it …

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625 Views
25 Downloads

Some cities in the South Asian countries of Bangladesh, India and Nepal have established interventions around faecal sludge management (FSM). The purpose of this study is to identify and disseminate best practices and lessons learned on how to make FSM an integral part of urban sanitation service delivery in cities and towns in South Asia both with and without sewerage systems. This study draws …

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1217 Views
0 Downloads

Presentations (download from conference website, see external link below, or go to: https://fsm5.susana.org/en/downloads/conference-materials):

Conference convenors:
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
BORDA
Eawag-Sandec
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH
Inclusive Sanitation in Practice (IPS)
Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)
University of …

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578 Views
18 Downloads

The 9th Emergency Environmental Health Forum took place from 18th -19th 2019 in Geneva, Switzerland. It brought together water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) experts. The forum provided an opportunity to exchange recent field experiences and explore innovative approaches amongst over 110 attendees and discuss ways for future action and interventions for WASH in emergencies.

EEHF 2019 …

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1973 Views
143 Downloads

On behalf of Oxfam, Arup have conducted a technical comparison study on Faecal Sludge Management at the Rohingya camps close to Cox's Bazar (CXB), Bangladesh. The aim of the study is to draw conclusions on best practice FSM for disaster relief, from evidence gathered through practical experience. The study used existing available data to inform the analysis and in many cases these datasets are …

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614 Views
45 Downloads

This compendium presents a range of technical options relating for collection, transport, treatment and disposal of fecal sludge in an emergency . It should be used as a guide to identify possible solutions for specific emergency situations and contexts. The final choice of options may need to combine different approaches and technologies and will depend on the phase of the emergency.

Each …

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978 Views
94 Downloads

Due to the lack of investment in a proper sanitation system in the Philippines - including sewage collection and treatment - close to 20% of the population (approx. 20 million) suffer from inadequate access to sanitation and 9 million rely on unsafe water sources. Additionally, a significant portion of the population is resorting to open defecation (6 million) as a negative coping mechanism, …

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1919 Views
54 Downloads

Addressing urban sanitation requires a concurrent focus on both infrastructure and service delivery systems. Where on-site sanitation is the main type of sanitation, as in the programme cities, a focus on safe faecal sludge management was required. Regular emptying of on-site containment systems is a key service delivery challenge that provides an entry point for improving urban sanitation …

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1759 Views
102 Downloads

The SFD week conducted from 2nd to 5th April 2019, was a three-day conclave on sanitation that helped around 140 sector players, from across India and beyond, to not only learn from the deliberations that went by throughout the week but also witness and enjoy the serene atmosphere that AAETI offers.

Here, you find the external link to the SFD Week material (presentations, videos, pictures) on …

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1304 Views
56 Downloads

This discussion will examine a few aspects of the waste water economy. In November 2018, the SuSanA India Chapter, IRC and TARU organised a face-to-face ‘Insights Discussion’ on sharing experiences on waste water challenges and solutions, facilitated by the Ecosan Services Foundation, in Mumbai. That discussion brought out five issues – setting standards for using waste water and sewage, …

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3473 Views
485 Downloads

Over a billion people in urban and peri-urban areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America are served by onsite sanitation technologies. Until now, the management of faecal sludge resulting from these onsite technologies has been grossly neglected. Financial resources are often lacking, and onsite sanitation systems tend to be regarded as temporary solutions until sewer-based systems can be …

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1471 Views
250 Downloads

On 20. February 2019 a side-event and lunch-meeting on Resource Recovery & Safe Reuse (RRR) and Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) for Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) took place during the 5th AfricaSan Regional Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene (AfricaSan5) and 5th International Faecal Sludge Management (FSM5) Conference in Cape Town, South Africa.

The events were organised as part of the …

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1288 Views
0 Downloads

The 6th International Dry Toilet Conference 2018 was held in Tampere, Finland on 22nd – 24th August 2018. The theme of the conference was Dry Toilet Goes Circular with a focus on Cooperation, Co-creation and Experimentation.

Please find the oral presentations and poster presentations below via the links to the page of the GlobalDry Toilet association of Finland.

***** Oral …

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2021 Views
345 Downloads

The city of Blantyre is the commercial and financial centre of Malawi and is located around 300 kilometres south-east of the capital, Lilongwe. Blantyre is situated at an altitude of approximately 1,050 meters above the sea level with a population of 1,068,681. Over 65 percent of the city’s population live in unplanned, informal settlements that are expanding quickly. The Blantyre City Council …

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1351 Views
0 Downloads

About the Training Modules

Training Modules on decentralsid sanitation, septage and waste water have been developed, tested and delivered by SCBP during 2016-17, during training of government officials from UP, Rajasthan, MP, Telengana, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh. These Modules have also been used in Training of Trainers(ToTs) of Amrut Nodal Agencies, Academia, …

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0 Downloads

About the Training Modules

Training Modules on decentralsid sanitation, septage and waste water have been developed, tested and delivered by SCBP during 2016-17, during training of government officials from UP, Rajasthan, MP, Telengana, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh. These Modules have also been used in Training of Trainers(ToTs) of Amrut Nodal Agencies, Academia, …

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About the Training Modules

Training Modules on decentralsid sanitation, septage and waste water have been developed, tested and delivered by SCBP during 2016-17, during training of government officials from UP, Rajasthan, MP, Telengana, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh. These Modules have also been used in Training of Trainers(ToTs) of Amrut Nodal Agencies, Academia, …

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0 Downloads

About the Training Modules

Training Modules on decentralsid sanitation, septage and waste water have been developed, tested and delivered by SCBP during 2016-17, during training of government officials from UP, Rajasthan, MP, Telengana, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh. These Modules have also been used in Training of Trainers(ToTs) of Amrut Nodal Agencies, Academia, …

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1265 Views
0 Downloads

About the Training Modules

Training Modules on decentralsid sanitation, septage and waste water have been developed, tested and delivered by SCBP during 2016-17, during training of government officials from UP, Rajasthan, MP, Telengana, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh. These Modules have also been used in Training of Trainers(ToTs) of Amrut Nodal Agencies, Academia, …

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1281 Views
0 Downloads

About the Training Modules

Training Modules on decentralsid sanitation, septage and waste water have been developed, tested and delivered by SCBP during 2016-17, during training of government officials from UP, Rajasthan, MP, Telengana, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh. These Modules have also been used in Training of Trainers(ToTs) of Amrut Nodal Agencies, Academia, …

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993 Views
0 Downloads

About the Training Modules

Training Modules on decentralsid sanitation, septage and waste water have been developed, tested and delivered by SCBP during 2016-17, during training of government officials from UP, Rajasthan, MP, Telengana, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh. These Modules have also been used in Training of Trainers(ToTs) of Amrut Nodal Agencies, Academia, …

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About the Training Modules

Training Modules on decentralised sanitation, septage and wastewater have been developed, tested and delivered by SCBP during 2016-17, during training of government officials from UP, Rajasthan, MP, Telengana, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh. These Modules have also been used in Training of Trainers(ToTs) of Amrut Nodal Agencies, Academia, …

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1944 Views
0 Downloads

About the Training Modules

Training Modules on decentralised sanitation, septage and wastewater have been developed, tested and delivered by SCBP during 2016-17, during training of government officials from UP, Rajasthan, MP, Telengana, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh. These Modules have also been used in Training of Trainers(ToTs) of Amrut Nodal Agencies, Academia, …

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996 Views
0 Downloads

About the Training Modules

Training Modules on decentralsid sanitation, septage and waste water have been developed, tested and delivered by SCBP during 2016-17, during training of government officials from UP, Rajasthan, MP, Telengana, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh. These Modules have also been used in Training of Trainers(ToTs) of Amrut Nodal Agencies, Academia, …

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1482 Views
0 Downloads

About the Training Modules

Training Modules on decentralsid sanitation, septage and waste water have been developed, tested and delivered by SCBP during 2016-17, during training of government officials from UP, Rajasthan, MP, Telengana, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh. These Modules have also been used in Training of Trainers(ToTs) of Amrut Nodal Agencies, Academia, …

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1452 Views
0 Downloads

About the Training Modules

Training Modules on decentralsid sanitation, septage and waste water have been developed, tested and delivered by SCBP during 2016-17, during training of government officials from UP, Rajasthan, MP, Telengana, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh. These Modules have also been used in Training of Trainers(ToTs) of Amrut Nodal Agencies, Academia, …

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398 Downloads

In developing the framework for provision and regulation of urban onsite sanitation services, the National Water and Sanitation Council of Zambia (NWASCO) was mandated to facilitate and coordinate the consultative process under the Ministry of Water Development, Sanitation and Environmental Protection (MWDSEP).

The objective of this publication is to assist in the creation of a regulatory …

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131 Downloads

The 21st meeting of the UK’s Sanitation Community of Practice was held on the 19th of April at the University of Leeds. The aim for the day was to engage participants in considering the links between human excreta management, solid waste management, and surface water drainage, as critical aspects of citywide environmental sanitation.

As well as the traditional SanCoP focus, contributions …

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1. Background of Kushtia Municipality
2. Solid Waste Management in Bangladesh
3. Sanitation Situation in Bangladesh
4. Faecal Sludge Management Situation in Bangladesh
5. Problem of Solid and Faecal Sludge Waste Management
6. Pilot Intervention on Faecal Sludge Management in Kushtia
7. Key Findings

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While rapidly-growing towns across Bangladesh don’t have proper sewerage system, the country has made a remarkable progress in terms of sanitation.

Practical Action has been in the forefront of the faecal sludge management (FSM) practices in Bangladesh.

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The Handbook is an initiative of Sanitation Capacity Building Platform (SCBP) to build capacities in Feacal Sludge and Septage Management (FSSM) for officials of urban local bodies (ULB), para state technical agencies, administrators and professionals from the private sector and Non-governmental Organizations. It is meant to be freely used by any can organization (public or private), national and …

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Faecal Sludge and Septage Management has been a neglected area in Indian cities. It has not received attention because of poor understanding of faecal sludge/ septage and lack of proper technical guidance. In this context a training module was developed aimed at training institutes from various states of India that regularly provide training to ULB officials. This two day training programme was …

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The 8th Emergency Environmental Health Forum (EEHF) event was hosted by the German WASH Network in close collaboration with the Secretariat of the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) at GIZ. The aim of the 2018 EEHF is:
- To share new research and learning
- To discuss new approaches and innovation in the sector
- To bridge silos between WASH and other humanitarian sectors
- To identify …

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987 Views
360 Downloads

The Sanitation Challenge Conference was deliberately aimed to create a dialogue between civil, process, agricultural and environmental engineers; urban planners, sociologists, economists, and political scientists who are involved in international sanitation research and implementation. It took place in Wageningen, the Netherlands from 19. to 21. May 2008.

Furthermore, this conference tried to …

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"Productive sanitation" - a discussion with three Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation grantees. Hosted by: Stockholm Environment Institute and the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) on 25 February 2014. This webinar has been recorded in 5 parts. This video clip contains Part 1, with an introduction by Arno Rosemarin.

Moderator: Nelson Ekane (SEI)

Sub-topics within the webinar:
1) Large …

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This research aims to contribute a small part towards larger efforts building credible evidence and increasing understanding of the current proven solutions in the emergency context through two components. The first component aims to investigate and compile what options have been proven for applications in the emergency context. The second component aims to understand what are the driving forces …

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The fourth conference on developments in Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) took place in Chennai, India where the State Government recently initiated measures to address FSM with regard to policy, regulatory changes, innovative solutions, and pilots.

The conference aimed at bringing together professionals working in the sector, including utilities, service providers, cities, governments, …

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0 Downloads

In the fictional African city of Bafini, 80% of residents have no access to a sewer connection, relying instead on toilets with pits or septic tanks. This creates a need for better faecal waste collection services, and a market opportunity for a smart entrepreneur.

You run a waste management business in Bafini, and have just decided to expand into faecal sludge management. You have a positive …

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708 Views
4 Downloads

The previous chapters covered how stabilisation, drying, and pathogen reduction of faecal sludge (FS) can be achieved with different treatment technologies, and combinations of these various technologies. Each treatment technology results in endproducts which need to be further treated, disposed of, or harnessed for some type of resource recovery. Endproducts, for example dried or partially dried …

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963 Views
23 Downloads

In an emergency situation, the collection, treatment and disposal of the human excreta and waste in a safe way is one of the biggest challenges to face, regardless the type of disaster. When it comes to faecal sludge management, the traditional desludging methods can often not be appropriate in an acute emergency phase. Consequently, relief organisations aim to apply new and simple approaches and …

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1743 Views
46 Downloads

Recognising city-level capacity limitations for decentralised sanitation planning and implementation in India, the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) appointed the National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA) as the anchor organisation for a Sanitation Capacity Building Platform (SCBP) to support cities in their sanitation planning and implementation. NIUA partnered with CAWST,2 a capacity …

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Like many cities in India, the city of Nashik is also struggling with citywide Solid Waste and Wastewater management. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an integrated approach to solid waste and wastewater management on the one hand and control of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions on the other hand. The Waste to Energy Project in Nashik is one such solution through co-processing of septage …

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300 Downloads

Like many cities in India, the city of Nashik is also struggling with citywide Solid Waste and Wastewater management. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an integrated approach to solid waste and wastewater management on the one hand and control of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions on the other hand. The Waste to Energy Project in Nashik is one such solution through co-processing of septage …

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3441 Views
442 Downloads

The sanitation situation in most of Kampala can be summarized as follows:
About 90% of it’s population relies on on-site sanitation facilities (pit latrines and septic tanks) whereas 50% of households share one sanitation facility, leading to unhygienic conditions.
More than 50% of pit-latrines are un-lined and filled with solid waste and only 20 – 25% of the toilets have ever been emptied …

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55 Downloads

The Faecal Sludge Transfer Station (FSTS) design is an innovation of Water for People (WfP) supported by GIZ RUWASS under a cofunding arrangement with the Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC). Under the Resource Recovery and Safe Reuse (RRR) Project Phase II, two mobile Faecal Sludge Transfer Stations have been piloted from April to June 2017 within informal urban settlements in Kampala.

The …

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372 Downloads

KCCA’s current drive towards improving faecal sludge management in Kampala is cognisant of the city sanitation challenges and significant contribution of sanitation to economic and social development of the country and thus its citizens. The Authority and its divisions have an intermediary function for the coordination of sanitation planning and the harmonisation with urban development …

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223 Downloads

Guiding document for Landlords, Tenants, and Local Leaders on Safe Pit Emptying, Improved Emptiable Toilets, and Toilet Hygiene.

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3494 Downloads

Worldwide, 2.7 billion people rely on onsite sanitation and more than 4.5 billion people do not have access to safely managed sanitation services. Yet, in many places there is still no management system in place to deal with the faecal sludge (e.g. septage and pit latrine sludge) from such systems. This results in the faecal waste often being dumped directly into the immediate residential …

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80 Downloads

Two flagship programmes of Prime Minister Narendra Modi are working at cross-purposes. By 2019, when Swachh Bharat Mission comes to an end, some 30 million septic tanks and pits would have been dug along the Ganga. These tanks and pits would produce 180 Million litres of faecal sludge every day, which will eventually find its way into the Ganga, defeating Namami Gange. It's time the Central, …

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2852 Views
147 Downloads

FSM4 was held in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, where the State Government has recently initiated measures to address FSM with regard to policy, regulatory changes, innovative solutions, and pilots. FSM4 focused on innovative and practical solutions that can be scaled up, including three tracks: research, case studies, and industry & exhibition.

Find below in chronological order the presentations held …

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2827 Views
232 Downloads

FSM4 was held in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, where the State Government has recently initiated measures to address FSM with regard to policy, regulatory changes, innovative solutions, and pilots. FSM4 focused on innovative and practical solutions that can be scaled up, including three tracks: research, case studies, and industry & exhibition.

Find below in chronological order the presentations held …

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3014 Views
162 Downloads

FSM4 was held in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, where the State Government has recently initiated measures to address FSM with regard to policy, regulatory changes, innovative solutions, and pilots. FSM4 focused on innovative and practical solutions that can be scaled up, including three tracks: research, case studies, and industry & exhibition.

Below you find the presentations held in track 3: Industry …

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3031 Views
160 Downloads

FSM4 was held in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, where the State Government has recently initiated measures to address FSM with regard to policy, regulatory changes, innovative solutions, and pilots. FSM4 focused on innovative and practical solutions that can be scaled up, including three tracks: research, case studies, and industry & exhibition.

Below you find the presentations held in track 2: Case …

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2743 Views
164 Downloads

FSM4 was held in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, where the State Government has recently initiated measures to address FSM with regard to policy, regulatory changes, innovative solutions, and pilots. FSM4 focused on innovative and practical solutions that can be scaled up, including three tracks: research, case studies, and industry & exhibition.

Find below in chronological order the presentations held …

read more & download …

2606 Views
136 Downloads

FSM4 was held in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, where the State Government has recently initiated measures to address FSM with regard to policy, regulatory changes, innovative solutions, and pilots. FSM4 focused on innovative and practical solutions that can be scaled up, including three tracks: research, case studies, and industry & exhibition.

Find below in chronological order the presentations held …

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2757 Views
259 Downloads

FSM4 was held in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, where the State Government has recently initiated measures to address FSM with regard to policy, regulatory changes, innovative solutions, and pilots. FSM4 focused on innovative and practical solutions that can be scaled up, including three tracks: research, case studies, and industry & exhibition.

Below you find the presentations held in track 1: Research …

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3528 Views
255 Downloads

Onsite sanitation systems are the predominant sanitation option worldwide (Medland et al., 2015). High population density in cities in low-middle income countries means that faecal sludge (FS) from onsite systems cannot be managed safely onsite. This creates a need for safe management of the FS through the sanitation service chain (SSC) (Hawkins et al. 2013). The movement of FS and wastewater …

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1081 Downloads

Bahir Dar is a city located northwest Ethiopia with a tropical savannah climate. According to the Town Administration, the population is 318,429 people, where 85% live in the urban and 15% in the peri-urban and rural areas of the city (data from 2012). Economic activities include an expanding textile industry as well as rapidly growing agro-industries. The potential for tourism and real estate …

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This collection contains the resources for both trainers and participants for CAWST and Eawag-Sandec's Introduction to Faecal Sludge Management workshop. This is a two-three day introductory workshop on FSM designed for various sanitation stakeholders. In this workshop, participants will learn about faecal sludge management for low-income communities not connected to a sewer. The workshop …

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136 Downloads

This discussion brief introduces a new tool being developed in the SEI Initiative on Sustainable Sanitation.

There is increasing interest in the concept of the circular economy and “closing the loop” in our use of various vital resources – including water, energy and mineral resources. This is driven not only by an interest in reducing the social and environmental damage linked to …

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65 Downloads

To-date, sanitation and waste management has mainly been approached from a public and environmental health perspective and this implies that excreta and other organic waste streams are seen not only as a hazard to quickly get rid of but also as only a very costly menace to manage. However, looking at sanitary and other urban organic waste streams from a resource recovery perspective provides an …

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4868 Views
409 Downloads

Kabul is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country. According to a 2012 estimate, the population of the city was around 3,289,000. It was selected for the SFD program because it is a mega city with only 20% supplied with piped water and 60% informal dwellings. In Kabul it was estimated that 25% of excreta is managed safely while 75% of the excreta …

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776 Downloads

Kampala is the capital and most populated city in Uganda, with a population of 1,507,080. The total area of the city is 178 km². In line with rapid urbanization, approximately 60% of city residents live in informal low-income settlements (“slums”). To account for the large number of daily commuters into Kampala, the assessment is based on a total population of …

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In Kampala, about 90% of the people rely on on-site sanitation solutions, which cannot be considered “improved” or “acceptable” in most cases: too many households share one toilet; pit-latrines are unlined, filled with solid wastes, and hard to access for emptying services, ultimately leading to filled-up facilities that are either abandoned or directly emptied into the environment, …

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40 Downloads

Sanitation issues are some of the most significant development challenges for Kampala City, Uganda. Like many other capital cities in developing countries, Kampala is experiencing rapid population and economic growth. However, provision of key services including adequate sanitation for the city population has not been in tandem with these developments.

In Uganda, piped sanitation systems are …

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4348 Views
140 Downloads

Tirupati is situated in Chittoor district in the southern of the state of Andhra Pradesh with a total population of just under 375,000. The town is a pilgrimage center and attracts a total diurnal floating population of about 55,000. During religious festivals the diurnal floating population exceeds 100,000. In Tirupati it was estimated that 70% of excreta is managed safely while 30% of the …

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Besides sanitation, solid waste management plays an important role in improving the hygienic conditions in cities. There are several strong links between sanitation and solid waste management. In sanitation systems without sewers, urine, faecal matter and faecal sludge have to be collected from the single households such as solid waste. Faecal matter as well as sludge from wastewater treatment …

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This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Chris Buckley is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Further information is also available on the SuSanA discussion forum, see link below.

Short description of the project:
The grant was awarded to the Pollution Research Group (PRG) at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in order to increase the …

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8286 Views
278 Downloads

During the immediate phase of an emergency in an urban context, the implementation of sanitation programmes takes a long time to provide suitable and sufficient facilities for the affected population.

While the emergency response for drinking water programmes has been improved with the design of standardised, rapid deployment kits, sanitation programmes in urban areas are limited to very few …

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This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Daniel Okello (Phase 1) and Najib B. Lukooya (Phase 2) are leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Further information is also available on the SuSanA discussion forum, see link below.

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5428 Views
655 Downloads

Tiruchirappalli, also known as Trichy, is one of the largest cities in Tamil Nadu and is known as an important trade, education and pilgrimage centre. The population of city as per the 2011 Census is 916,857. There is sewerage network which covers 59% of the population. Rest of the city is majorly dependent on septic tanks which are generally not adhering to design prescribed by Bureau of Indian …

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929 Downloads

Agra, the former capital of India is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. There is sewerage network which covers half of the population. Rest of the city is majorly dependent on septic tanks which are generally not adhering to design prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).

Date of production: 21/10/2015
Last update: 29/01/2016

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Gwalior is a historical city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. There is sewerage network covering around 80% of the population. In spite having good sewerage network within the city only 19% of wastewater is safely managed in the city and rest 81%, which also includes 6% of city defecating in open, is shown unsafe in SFD.

Date of production: 13/10/2015
Last update: 23/01/2016

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Danang is located at the South Central Coast of Vietnam. It is the fourth most populated city in the country with approximately 1,007,400 inhabitants in 2014 (GSO 2015). The total land area of the city is 1,285 km2, including 65 km2 of residential area (GSO 2015). Sixty-two percent (62%) of the excreta flow was classified as unsafe management along the sanitation service chain (containment, …

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The city of Nashik is located in the northwest of the state of Maharashtra in the Western Ghats at the source of the Godavari River. As per Census 2011 Nashik has a total population of just under 1.5 Million. In Nashik it was estimated that 85% of excreta is managed safely while 15% of the excreta ends up directly in the environment without adequate treatment.

This Shit Flow Diagram (SFD) …

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199 Downloads

In 2012, the Water Research Commission, together with the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation, took a strategic decision to develop capacity in Africa to deal with faecal sludge management. This initiative, known as the Sanitation Research Fund for Africa (SRFA) Project, provides an exclusive research and development grant of up to US$200 000 to African institutions and organisations.

12 …

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5463 Views
768 Downloads

Kumasi is the second largest city in Ghana and lies in the Ashanti Region in the south of the country (Adarkwa, 2011). The city covers approximately 254 sq. km. It has an approximately population of 2.7 million with an annual growth rate of 5.5% (City Population, 2015, World Bank, 2008). A high percentage of the population of Kumasi is reliant on public toilets that are properly regulated by KMA …

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An excreta flow diagram (also often described as shit flow diagram, SFD) presents a clear picture of the outcome arising from wastewater and faecal sludge management practices and services in a city or town. This is expressed in terms of the percentage of the population. An accompanying report describes the service delivery context of the city or town.

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5731 Views
801 Downloads

Dar es Salaam lies on the coast of the Indian Ocean and is the largest city and economic hub of Tanzania (DCC, 2004). The 2015 population is estimated to have reached more than 5 million inhabitants (NBS,2013). In Dar es Salaam, it was estimated that 43% of excreta is managed safely while 57% of the excreta ends up directly in the environment without adequate treatment.

This Shit Flow Diagram …

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4476 Views
70 Downloads

Aizawl is the capital of Mizoram State located in the east of the Himalayan region of India. The density of the city, 2,823 persons per sq. km, is higher compared to state average, 52 persons per sq. km. 92% of the city depend on onsite sanitation systems and 8% of the city on offsite systems. There is no wastewater treatment leading to unsafe management of faecal sludge and wastewater.

Date …

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The workshop participants were divided into two groups to discuss the existing material in the new book on Faecal Sludge Management. The first group was asked to focus on the chapters dealing with the FSM Technology issues while the second group focused on the Planning and Management chapters of the book.

All workshop presentations are available …

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3430 Views
18 Downloads

Resource recovery is important to consider before choosing a method for faecal sludge treatment and management, to ensure technologies are adequately and appropriately designed to produce resource recovery products. The workshop covered a wide range of resource recovery opportunities from faecal sludge including composting, vermicomposting, protein, fodder and plants, building materials and …

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3160 Views
30 Downloads

Resource recovery is important to consider before choosing a method for faecal sludge treatment and management, to ensure technologies are adequately and appropriately designed to produce resource recovery products. The workshop covered a wide range of resource recovery opportunities from faecal sludge including composting, vermicomposting, protein, fodder and plants, building materials and …

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3177 Views
6 Downloads

The workshop presented the overarching framework of the WSP FSM study, and focused on key diagnostic tools being developed by GIZ, Emory University and WSP. These tools are designed to: track faecal waste flows (SFDs), assess public health risks (SaniPATH) and assess economic outcomes of interventions (ESI). By using a mix of presentations, case study-based group work and open discussion, the …

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The Third International Faecal Sludge Management Conference was held in Hanoi from the 18th to the 21st of January 2015. More than 700 delegates from around the world shared ideas and discussed challenges and opportunities in on-site sanitation.

Below you find the list of papers in chronological order by day (Day 1-3) and room (room 1-3 ). In order to search by author, simply press "Ctrl+F" …

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This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Mirco Keller is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Further information is also available on the SuSanA discussion forum, see link below.

Goal(s):
The overall goal of the Project is to decrease in the quantity of untreated faecal sludge being released into the environment of …

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214 Downloads

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In this library entry we have grouped together up to five documents that we think are important "first reading" materials for anyone wishing to obtain a quick overview of this topic. For more details, please see the external links to the discussion forum below.

The documents listed in this library entry in reverse chronological order already exist as individual library entries but have been …

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This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Sudhir Pillay is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (further information is also available on the SuSanA discussion forum, see link below).

The SRFA Project was established through a USD 2.5 Million grant from The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). The project was aims to stimulate local …

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6734 Views
165 Downloads

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210 Downloads

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72 Downloads

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175 Downloads

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The Second International Faecal Sludge Management Conference was held in Durban from the 29th to the 31st of October 2012. 320 delegates from around the world shared ideas and discussed challenges and opportunities in on-site sanitation.

Below you find the Conference Report and the list of papers in alphabetical order by main author last name.

The available FSM2 conference presentations in …

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5530 Views
221 Downloads

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41 Downloads

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34 Downloads

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673 Downloads

Emergency camp’s sanitation infrastructure is often inadequate and the risks to people’s health become extreme. Governments, NGOs and Humanitarian organisations are fully aware of these problems and the fact that the basic pit latrine design has not been improved upon in decades which aggravated those problems even more.
This is especially applicable for camps packed with tens of thousands …

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21 Downloads

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The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.


Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Regional chapters

Use the map or the search tool to access the most relevant information and knowledge products for your region or country. This includes relevant resources, events, partners or projects.

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs), excreta flow diagrams

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

Emersan eCompendium

 


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Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »


Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

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SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »


Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

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