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Independent Evaluation of SANIMAS Model as an Approach for Providing Decentralised Sanitation

Bulson, P., Muslimah, S., Reynaud, N., Blackett, I., Campbell, A. V., Arsyini, I. (2021)

Published in: 2021
Pages: 115

Islamic Development Bank (IsDB), Citywide Inclusive Sanitation Technical Assistance Hub for South Asia (CWIS TA-Hub)

Bulson, P., Muslimah, S., Reynaud, N., Blackett, I., Campbell, A. V., Arsyini, I.

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SuSanA Admin


According to RPJMN 2020–20241 figures, in 2018 almost 75 percent of the Indonesian population has access to improved sanitation nationally. This includes almost 7.5 percent classified as safely managed sanitation services based on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030 definitions. These figures are impressive considering the low base of sanitation coverage with which the country has been evolving from.

The Indonesian government, IsDB, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) and other stakeholders recognise that the sanitation sector has been rapidly evolving with (i) innovative technologies; (ii) new water and sanitation ecosystem services delivery models; (iii) new public-private partnerships (PPP) business models; and (iv) new financial models, sector players and financial investors. In this regard, the Ministry of National Development Planning (Bappenas) and IsDB sought support from BMGF for conducting a decentralised wastewater management and sanitation sector assessment; and to seek comprehensive recommendations for Indonesia’s approach, with a special focus on SANIMAS as one approach for decentralised SSS.

This evaluation report includes a review of the successes, challenges and opportunities for expanding SANIMAS approaches; and integration of SANIMAS into a more City-Wide Inclusive Sanitation (CWIS) approach. It also provides 15 specific recommendations for an improved scope, financing and coverage for upscaling more sustainable SANIMAS investments in the future.

Bibliographic information

Bulson, P., Muslimah, S., Reynaud, N., Blackett, I., Campbell, A. V., Arsyini, I. (2021). Independent Evaluation of SANIMAS Model as an Approach for Providing Decentralised Sanitation. Islamic Development Bank (IsDB), Citywide Inclusive Sanitation Technical Assistance Hub for South Asia (CWIS TA-Hub)

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1. SANIMAS_Evaluation_2021_final_lowres_EN

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2. SANIMAS_Evaluation_2021_final_lowres_IN

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