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Various documents on results from research grant
RTI, International, North Carolina, USA
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that David Robbins is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3856-using-cocopeat-for-treating-septic-tank-effluent-rti-usa-philippines-indonesia-vietnam-and-other-countries Short description of the project: Commercialize the cocopeat biofiltration technology for rapid scale up through prototyping, testing in controlled and operational environments, and then launching the products through a market-based sales and distribution model. Goal(s): The goal of this project is to test and commercialize next generation low cost and sustainable wastewater treatment systems using an innovative biofilter medium harvested from crushed coconut shells. Cocopeat, the dust that remains after the coir (fibers) are removed, is proving to be an effective medium for treating wastewater. The project team is testing the cocopeat biofilters on septic tank effluent, the effluent from community biodigesters, and greywater from residential and commercial sources. Simplified construction and installation techniques are also being explored and documented for the eventual commercialization and scaling up of the technology. Objectives: a) To introduce cocopeat biofiltration technology as a viable wastewater management choice that may be lower in cost, require less area, quicker set up time and simpler operation and maintenance than other secondary wastewater systems, such as constructed wetlands or sand and gravel filters. b) to provide business opportunities to local service providers that wish to expand their services to include this low cost technology c) to help spur economic development and job creation in coconut producing areas by introducing a new product and new paradigm of low cost sanitation improvement. Research or implementation partners: o Muntinlupa City, Municipal Government, Philippines o Can Tho University, Vietnam o Instut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia o Duke University, North Carolina USA o Eram Scientific, India o Quanics, Inc. USA o Innovative Waste Consulting Services, USA +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: 1- Lessons Learned in Fecal Sludge Management: Experiences from the Philippines (Paper at FSM2 Conference in Durban, South Africa, Oct. 2012) 2- Lessons Learned in Fecal Sludge Management: Experiences from the Philippines (Presentation at FSM2 Conference in Durban, South Africa, Oct. 2012)
Sol-Char Toilet: Using Concentrated Solar Energy to Stabilize Fecal Waste and Produce a Valuable Soil Amendment
Various documents on results from research grant
University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Karl Linden is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3960-sol-char-toilet-using-concentrated-solar-energy-to-treat-fecal-waste-and-produce-a-valuable-soil-amendment-colorado Project Description: Last September, our team here at the University of Colorado, Boulder took on the BMGF challenge to reinvent the toilet with a novel approach that utilizes concentrated solar energy to safely and efficiently char fecal waste without the need for intensive pre-drying. As a quick overview, our toilet – the Sol-Char Toilet – is a waterless, self-contained toilet that functions off-the-grid. Concentrated sunlight is delivered to fiber optic bundles located at the focus of parabolic concentrators (see Concept Sketch). The fiber optic cables are fed to the reaction compartment of the Sol-Char where the various individual cables are terminated at an outer or “solar” lid positioned over the waste collection container. The innovative transmission of concentrated solar power illuminates the inner collection container and disinfects the waste though conduction, convection, and radiation heat transfer. The reaction compartment comprises two or more containers that are alternated between “collection” and “reaction” modes via a simple carousel system that can be automated (powered with photovoltaic energy) or manually controlled. The reactor is designed to achieve high temperatures (300oC to 750oC) and produces a safe and useable product. Research Goal: Our goal during this phase 1 of research is to develop a functioning toilet prototype that will provide a scientific basis for utilizing concentrated solar energy to safely disinfect and transform human waste into valuable end products (such as char for agricultural soil application). On-going research activities include: • Solar collection and transmission optimization • Reactor modeling and fabrication • Char product evaluation and testing o Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and dry pyrolysis chars will be compared o Dry pyrolysis will also be evaluated with mixed waste and urine diversion to determine the best utilization of nutrients o Adsorption studies will be conducted in the liquid and gas phase to determine if the char can be further enriched with NPK • Means for odor control, gas utilization, and final product storage • User interface and safety features Our prototype development is underway and we are excited to further advance this technology. We welcome your feedback and comments! +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: Solar Biochar Toilet (Presentation at FSM2 Conference in Durban, South Africa, Oct. 2012)
Fear and anger: Perceptions of risks related to sexual violence against women linked to water and sanitation in Delhi, India
SHARE (Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity) and WaterAid, UK
The link between a lack of access to water and sanitation facilities and sexual violence against women is not well known and to date has received insufficient attention. This document attempts to highlight this link within the context of urban slums in Delhi, and suggests how this problem can be addressed. Access to water and sanitation services and the fulfilment of these fundamental human rights is experienced differently by men and women. The lack of access to sanitation and drinking water affects women and girls disproportionately, by impacting on their health and dignity, contributing to their vulnerability, and thereby frustrating efforts to empower women to lead a healthy and economically productive life. Women without water supplies and toilets within their homes are potentially vulnerable to sexual violence when travelling to and from public facilities, when using public facilities and when they have to defecate in the open in the absence of any amenities.
Various documents on results from research grant
Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Marc Deshusses is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/2952-effective-sewage-sanitation-with-low-co2-footprint-duke-university-in-durham-north-carolina-usa#2952 Short description of the project: The overall objective of our project is to develop and demonstrate the proof of concept a novel self-contained and energy neutral sanitation technology that relies on anaerobic digestion of the wastes to generate biogas and utilization of the biogas thus produced to heat-sterilize the treated effluent. The system utilizes simple and reliable equipment so that it does not require a skilled operator or any special maintenance regime. Goal: Provide proof of concept of anaerobic digestion coupled with heat sterilization for a self-sanitizing system for developing communities Activities and objectives The project has been divided in two main parts: a) The anaerobic reactor (lab scale): design and performance b) The heat sterilization system (full-scale or near full-scale): design, construction and proof of concept to heat-sterilize the treated sewage effluent The main goal of the lab anaerobic reactor is to prove the suitability of a mixture of feces and urine to serve as a substrate for the anaerobic process focused mainly in the yield and rate of biogas production. The concern is mainly to achieve usual biogas yields and obtain suitable rates of biogas production. Regarding the heat sterilization system, the challenge is to design a simple and low-cost system with virtually no moving parts, that can effectively deployed, e.g., as a replacement of pit latrines. Research or implementation partners: Chepkoilel University, Eldoret, Kenya Further authors: Deshusses, M., Colon, J., Forbis-Stokes, A. +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: 1- Effective sewage sanitation with low CO2 footprint (Paper at FSM2 Conference in Durban, South Africa, Oct. 2012) 2- Effective sewage sanitation with low CO2 footprint (Presentation at FSM2 Conference in Durban, South Africa, Oct. 2012)
Various documents on results from research grant
Wetland Works! Ltd, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Taber Hand is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/4057-floating-treatment-pods-for-lake-communities-in-asia-wetland-works-ltd-phnom-penh-cambodia Short description of the project: The socio-entrepreneurial start-up Wetlands Work! received a grant in Round 7 of the Bill and Melinda Gates Grand Challenges Exploration program. WW! has developed an individual household wastewater treatment system that uses floating “Pods” - similar in appearance to children’s wading pools - that are positioned directly under the toilets of houseboats occupied by low-income fishing families. Similar to aquatic mesocosms, the Pods are filled with floating plants, and the bacteria that reside on the plant roots are capable of breaking down contaminants and making the water significantly cleaner. Presently, Pods are installed throughout an entire floating community and data on water quality (indicator organisms) and diarrheal incidence (children ds are used per household. The first, which is positioned directly under the toilet, covered and predominantly anaerobic, is linked through a small opening to a second Pod, predominantly aerobic and containing plants. This set-up eliminates odor and increases treatment capacity. 2) Pod tests: demonstrated the ability of the single aerobic Pod to significantly reduce E. coli (an indicator bacterium) levels under controlled conditions by 3 log orders in a 24-hr period, for example from 6.7 to 3.9 log reduction of E. coli. Pods were filled with clean water and hyacinth (~3.5 kg). Sewage or raw feces were added and E. coli measured in water samples. Pod tests on lake: A tracer study will be used to determine most efficient retention time and flow between double Pods and out flow to ambient water. Pilot Pod village tests: Single Pod tested 1+ year at a floating research station and then for 4 months at a villager’s house, followed by village-wide deployment of double Pods since January 1, 2013. Two villages have been selected, with one acting as a no-intervention control, while in the second treatment Pods are widely adopted in all but three houses. There are approximately forty households in one, fifty in the other at similar income levels. Each family has between 4 to 6 people. A weekly survey is used to gauge the health of 0-10 year olds (our target group is 0-5 yr olds) in the villages using a simple questionnaire on gastrointestinal symptoms and three photos from the Bristol stool test. After 18+ months of Pod usage, health and water quality data collected over the course of Pod implementation in the two villages will be statistically assessed. 3) Field-testing on the village scale (40 households, 37 Pods, 198 people): Observing and addressing usefulness, behavioural adaptation and maintenance issues, as well as optimising Pod size to ensure sufficient treatment capacity for larger households of 7 or more, including schoolhouse. Further, testing locally available materials (e.g. bamboo baskets) to adapt in Pod construction. 4) Field-testing in Burma: In addition to the floating villages in Cambodia, a variant treatment Pod is being designed for pilot introduction in two stilted home communities (~50 Pods each, total ~460 people) living on Lake Inle, Burma, which face similar challenges in sanitation. The administrative framework and MOU are in place, and we are currently awaiting funding. Research or implementation partners: Conservation International in Cambodia and Inle Lake and Watershed Development Association and Institute of International Development in Burma +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: Floating treatment pods for lake communities (Presentation at FSM2 Conference in Durban, South Africa, Oct. 2012)
Various documents on results from research grant
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Steve Lindsay is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Goal(s): The goal of this project is to design traps that attract, capture and kill flies in latrines in an effort to reduce fly-transmitted diarrheal diseases. Abstract of Paper 1 (Lindsay et al. 2012): Background: Chrysomya spp are common blowflies in Africa, Asia and parts of South America and some species can reproduce in prodigious numbers in pit latrines. Because of their strong association with human feces and their synanthropic nature, we examined whether these flies are likely to be vectors of diarrheal pathogens. Methodology/Principal Findings: Flies were sampled using exit traps placed over the drop holes of latrines in Gambian villages. Odor-baited fly traps were used to determine the relative attractiveness of different breeding and feeding media. The presence of bacteria on flies was confirmed by culture and bacterial DNA identified using PCR. A median of 7.00 flies/ latrine/day (IQR = 0.0–25.25) was collected, of which 95% were Chrysomya spp, and of these nearly all were Chrysomya putoria (99%). More flies were collected from traps with feces from young children (median = 3.0, IQR = 1.75–10.75) and dogs (median = 1.50, IQR = 0.0–13.25) than from herbivores (median = 0.0, IQR = 0.0–0.0; goat, horse, cow and calf; p,0.001). Flies were strongly attracted to raw meat (median = 44.5, IQR = 26.25–143.00) compared with fish (median = 0.0, IQR = 0.0–19.75, ns), cooked and uncooked rice, and mangoes (median = 0.0, IQR = 0.0–0.0; p,0.001). Escherichia coli were cultured from the surface of 21% (15/72 agar plates) of Chrysomya spp and 10% of these were enterotoxigenic. Enteroaggregative E. coli were identified by PCR in 2% of homogenized Chrysomya spp, Shigella spp in 1.4% and Salmonella spp in 0.6% of samples. Conclusions/Significance: The large numbers of C. putoria that can emerge from pit latrines, the presence of enteric pathogens on flies, and their strong attraction to raw meat and fish suggests these flies may be common vectors of diarrheal diseases in Africa. Abstract of paper 2 (Lindsay et al., 2012): African pit latrines produce prodigious numbers of the latrine fly, Chrysomya putoria, a putative vector of diarrhoeal pathogens. We set out to develop a simple, low-cost odour-baited trap for collecting C. putoria in the field. A series of field experiments was carried out in The Gambia to assess the catching-efficiency of different trap designs. The basic trap was a transparent 3L polypropylene box baited with 50 g of fish, with a white opaque lid with circular entrance holes. We tested variations of the number, diameter, position and shape of the entrance holes, the height of the trap above ground, degree of transparency of the box, its shape, volume, colour, and the attractiveness of gridded surfaces on or under the trap. Traps were rotated between positions on different sampling occasions using a Latin Square design. The optimal trapping features were incorporated into a final trap that was tested against commercially available traps. Features of the trap that increased the number of flies caught included: larger entrance holes (compared with smaller ones, p,0.001), using conical collars inside the holes (compared with without collars, p = 0.01), entrance holes on the top of the trap (compared with the side or bottom, p,0.001), traps placed on the ground (compared with above ground, p,0.001), the box having transparent sides (compared with being opaque, p,0.001), and with no wire grids nearby (compared with those with grids, p = 0.03). This trap collected similar numbers of C. putoria to other common traps for blow flies. The optimum trap design was a transparent box, with a white plastic lid on top, perforated with 10 conical entrance holes, placed on the ground. Our simple trap provides a cheap, low-maintenance and effective method of sampling C. putoria in the field. Authors: Paper 1 1: Lindsay, T. C., Jawara, M., D’Alessandro, U., Pinder M., Lindsay S.W. Paper 2: Lindsay, S. W., Lindsay, T. C., Duprez, J., Hall, M. J. R., Kwambana, B. A., Jawara, M., Nurudeen, I. U., Sallah, N., Wyatt, N., D’Alessandro, U., Pinder, M., Antonio, M. Further documents (not available for download from this website): Abstract of paper 3: Lindsay, T. C., Jawara, M., D’Alessandro, U., Pinder, M., Lindsay, S. W. (2013) Preliminary studies developing methods for the control of Chrysomya putoria, the African latrine fly, in pit latrines in The Gambia. Tropical Medicine and International Health volume 18 no 2 pp 159–165 Objective To explore ways of controlling Chrysomya putoria, the African latrine fly, in pit latrines. As pit latrines are a major source of these flies, eliminating these important breeding sites is likely to reduce village fly populations, and may reduce the spread of diarrhoeal pathogens. Methods We treated 24 latrines in a Gambian village: six each with (i) pyriproxyfen, an insect juvenile hormone mimic formulated as Sumilarv® 0.5G, a 0.5% pyriproxyfen granule, (ii) expanded polystyrene beads (EPB), (iii) local soap or (iv) no treatment as controls. Flies were collected using exit traps placed over the drop holes, weekly for five weeks. In a separate study, we tested whether latrines also function as efficient flytraps using the faecal odours as attractants. We constructed six pit latrines each with a built-in flytrap and tested their catching efficiency compared to six fish-baited box traps positioned 10 m from the latrine. Focus group discussions conducted afterwards assessed the acceptability of the flytrap latrines. Results Numbers of emerging C. putoria were reduced by 96.0% (95% CIs: 94.5–97.2%) 4–5 weeks after treatment with pyriproxyfen; by 64.2% (95% CIs: 51.8–73.5%) after treatment with local soap; by 41.3% (95% CIs = 24.0–54.7%) after treatment with EPB 3–5 weeks after treatment. Flytraps placed on latrines collected C. putoria and were deemed acceptable to local communities. Conclusions Sumilarv 0.5G shows promise as a chemical control agent, whilst odour-baited latrine traps may prove a useful method of non-chemical fly control. Both methods warrant further development to reduce fly production from pit latrines. A combination of interventions may prove effective for the control of latrine flies and the diseases they transmit. +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: 1- Development of Odour-Baited Flytraps for Sampling the African Latrine Fly, Chrysomya putoria, a Putative Vector of Enteric Diseases (2012) 2- Chrysomya putoria, a Putative Vector of Diarrheal Diseases (2012)
Up-scaling Basic Sanitation for the Urban Poor in Kenya; Technical Cooperation for Upscaling Basic Sanitation for the Urban Poor in Kenya
Various documents on results from research grant
Water Services Trust Fund
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Jacqueline Musyoki is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment-and-others/4204-up-scaling-basic-sanitation-for-the-urban-poor-in-kenya-ubsup-wstf-and-giz-kenya Short description of the project: Rapid urbanization combined with a widening income gap between rich and poor and limited economic opportunities of the poorer strata in the society are the main causes of the increasing growth of the low income urban settlements including slums in Most African countries. Slum dwellers, however, face serious inadequacy in access to safe water and basic sanitation as characterized by deteriorating living conditions. Kenya is one such African country facing these challenges. The country has more than 1,800 low income areas with a total estimated population of 8 million. The lack of access to adequate basic sanitation by the poor population has had devastating infant (under five) mortality effect, insecurity especially to women at night and low dignity among other sanitation burdens. It is in this context that the WSTF jointly with GIZ are developing a concept for up-scaling sanitation in low income urban households with a focus on household and plot-level sanitation aimed at improving the living conditions of the urban poor in Kenya through enhanced access to basic sanitation and safe water. Goals The goals of this project is to improve the living conditions of the urban poor by offering access to sustainable plot level sanitation for up to 800.000 and to safe water for up to 200.000 residents of urban low income areas in Kenya, enabling these residents to practice sound hygiene. The project consists of a “technical component” (advisory services, capacity building, up-scaling concept development, monitoring and reporting system, etc.) and a “financial and up-scaling component” providing subsidies for plot level sanitation facilities. Objectives of the programme 1. The project is successful when it provides sustainable sanitation for over 800,000 people and safe water for 200,000 in the urban low income-areas in Kenya and will have achieved satisfactory performance if 600,000 are reached with sanitation and 100,000 with safe water. 2. A monitoring system for tracking access to safe water and basic sanitation facilities of urban low income area dwellers is in place and accessible to the public (i.e. an online database). 3. Sector institutions, civil society organizations and small-scale private entrepreneurs have the capacity to actively participate in the provision of basic sanitation to the urban low income areas and cooperation with research institutes results in improved sanitation options. 4. A sanitation up-scaling concept in line with the sector reforms ensures sustainable use of facilities and is used for the further development of the sub-sector.
Various documents on results from research grant.
Stanford University, USA
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Kory Russel is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/99-faecal-sludge-transport/4002-resource-mobile-sanitation-services-for-dense-urban-slums-stanford-university-usa Short description of the project: We aim to develop a low-cost sanitation service for the one billion (and growing) people living in urban slums. We seek to perfect the hardware and service model for this service in order to facilitate entrepreneurial franchises around the world. Our first pilot was in Shada, a community in Cap-Haitien, Haiti, in close collaboration with our friends at SOIL. We are developing a portable, low-cost household toilet and entrepreneurial service model to deliver a safe, dignified sanitation service in urban slums. We piloted a container-based system in Shada, a slum that has no sewers and no piped water supply. Our toilet is portable, with removable containers to collect and transport wastes safely from the community. Waste is being processed at SOIL's human waste composting facilities, generating fertilizer to improve Haiti's devastated soil resources. Our strategy is to enable local entrepreneurs to recover energy, nutrients, and material from the waste in order to subsidize the cost of the sanitation system, reduce user fees, earn a livelihood, improve the environment and boost agricultural productivity. Since our toilets are portable, users do not need to make a large up-front payment to use our service. They subscribe for a small monthly fee, and receive the toilet as part of the service. If they terminate the service or are evicted without the option of continuing service elsewhere, they can return the toilet at no penalty. Objectives / Activities / Key Components: 1. Design a modern, portable, affordable, and stylish container-based toilet that will appeal to urban customers who otherwise aspire to a flush toilet. 2. Develop business tools to foster the growth of sanitation service businesses around the toilets. 3. Pilot both the toilet and service in a rigorous, research based trial . 4. Integrate mobile waste tracking technology into the service to monitor performance, maximize efficiency, and minimize service costs. 5. Convert all collected waste into useful and valuable end products. 6. Produce rigorous research and business assessment tools to test and improve container-based systems ensuring that they can scale while protecting and satisfying their users.
Various documents on results from research grant
Oklahoma State University, USA
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Gary Foutch is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/4054-auger-die-assembly-that-treats-fecal-wastes-at-high-temperature-and-shear-stress-oklahoma-state-university-usa Short description of the project: We have built and tested a laboratory scale device that can heat fecal and simulant materials up to 190C by friction generated between a rotating inner core and a fixed outer core. Current efforts focus on reclamation of water vaporized from the waste. Goal(s): The goal of this project is to develop a small-scale device in which an auger forces feces and other solid wastes device through a die that results in high temperatures and pressure that dewaters the waste and destroys microorganisms. Objectives: Our focus has been on sanitization of solid waste for subsequent safe use, handling and transportation. The energy input into the solids is by mechanical forces that results in the mass self heating by friction. The temperature rise is sufficient to allow water to leave as steam for condensation and reuse. Start and end date: Start: 1 May, 2011 End: 31 Oct 2012, final report submitted: 15 Dec 2012, Grant type: GCE Round 6 Funding for this research currently ongoing (yes/no): Students funded currently with OSU endowment funds. Phase 2 submission in process. Research or implementation partners: None +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: 1-Faecal Sludge Treatment by Viscous Heating (Paper at the FSM2 Conference in Durban, South Africa, Oct. 2012) 2-Faecal Sludge Treatment by Viscous Heating (Presentation at FSM2 Conference in Durban, South Africa, Oct. 2012)
Various documents on results from research grant
Rice University, USA
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Naomi Halas is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/4317-solar-steam-sterilizer-for-treatment-of-human-waste-rice-university-usa#4317 Short description of the project: Solar steam generation, a recent discovery from the Halas lab at Rice University, is the technological breakthrough upon which this project is based. Light-absorbing nanoparticles, when dispersed in water and illuminated by sunlight, produce steam with only secondary heating of the fluid volume: more than 80% of the solar energy absorbed by the nanoparticles is converted directly into steam, with less than 20% contributing to residual fluid heating. Due to its unparalleled high efficiency, this process produces high temperature steam rapidly, in compact, standalone geometries extremely well-suited for applications in the developing world. The nanoparticles are inexpensive, industrially produced carbon particles, and are not consumed in the steam generation process. The only input other than solar energy is water, which need not be sterilized prior to use. Goal(s): The goal of this project is to design and build a Solar Steam Sterilizer specifically for the processing of human excreta in resource-constrained locations. Objectives: In Phase I we demonstrated a compact, standalone solar steam generator-driven autoclave capable of delivering high temperature steam (>130oC) for the sterilization of human waste. The prototype unit is capable of sterilizing a 14 liter volume of waste in 5 minutes (30 minute total cycling time). Both the short cycle time and the quality of the sterilized output “product” establish a new standard far above existing waste remediation methods. Start and end date: end date 30 April 2013, final report due 15 June 2013 Grant type: GCE R7 Research or implementation partners: Sanivation and EurekaSun Further authors: Neumann, O., Feronti, C., Dong, A., Neumann, A., Calderon, I. +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: 1- A solar steam sterilizer for the treatment of human waste (Poster)
Various documents on results from research grant
Shijiazhuang University of Economics, PR China
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Jing Ning is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/4371-fecal-sludge-extraction-and-disposal-system-in-situ-solarwind-energy-driven-facility-shijiazhuang-uni-china Short description of the project: Disposal human waste in situ by an column-like facility; Evaporation liquid from raw sewage powered by solar-thermal energy; remove pathogens by raising temperature over 140C; preferred on existing, inexpensive, practical, multi-disciplinary techniques and methods to solve the great challenge in limited term. Goal(s): The goal of this project is to design a new system for hygienic and adequate pit/tank emptying and extraction. Objectives: 1) Suitable sunny areas / countries (cover ~0.8 billion@ 2.6 billion without sanitation) 2) Meet the “off the grid, inexpensive, recover resources and remove the pathogens” Start and end date: Nov, 2011~Mar 2013 , final report 1 May 2013 Grant type: GCE Round 7 Funding for this research currently ongoing (yes/no): yes +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: 1- GCE Phase I Scientific Report
Various documents on results from research grant
San Diego State University Foundation
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Temesgen Garoma is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/4232-enhanced-anaerobic-digestion-a-sanitation-and-energy-recovery-technology-modad-san-diego-state-university-usa-and-kenya-ethiopia Short description of the project: Modified Anaerobic Digestion (ModAD) technology, developed at San Diego State University with a grant from the Grand Challenge Explorations Program of the Bill and Melinda Gate Foundation, has the potential to address the sanitation challenges in developing countries. Laboratory results showed that the technology can be developed into a reliable, affordable, and sustainable waste treatment system (Garoma and Williams, 2012). ModAD technology has produced residual biosolids that meet US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) requirements for pathogen and volatile solids reductions, thus these biosolids can be applied to soil as fertilizer (USEPA, 1999). In addition, the technology recovers biogas as a fuel for energy. The recovery of these resources, biosolids and biogas, provide additional incentives for a community to adopt and sustain this technology. The ModAD technology is versatile and the design can be modified to fit for communities of all income levels. Furthermore, it can be scaled to treat waste at any size facility, from a group of households at rural communities to a high rise building in big cities. Goal(s): The goal of this project is to modify and adapt an anaerobic digestion system that will treat waste and generate a reliable supply of biogas from the co-digestion of algal biomass and waste. Start and end date: 31 Oct 2011, final report due 30 October 2013 Grant type: GCE R7 Funding for this research currently ongoing (yes/no): Yes Research or implementation partners: Jimma University, Ethiopia and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya. +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: 1- Enhanced anaerobic digestion as a sanitation and energy recovery technology (FSM2 conference, 2012) 2- Enhanced anaerobic digestion as a sanitation and energy recovery technology (Presentation at FSM2 conference, 2012)
INREM Foundation, India
Going into the second decade of the 21st century, the question of good sanitation is yet unresolved in most of the developing world. A variety of contributing factors dictate that on-site sanitation is still the most widespread mode of sanitation available. If properly implemented, such options could in combination with other larger scale services offer viable alternatives and complementary approaches to dominantly sewer-based sanitation systems. However, both poor design of such on-site sanitation systems, dense habitation and a combination of physical hydrogeologic factors result in threat to the contamination to fresh groundwater resources. Drinking water in both rural and urban parts of the developing world being highly decentralized and dependent critically on aquifers, this contamination of groundwater such on-site sanitation has a heavy public health burden, visible through a host of diseases, causing widespread morbidity and mortality. Objective(s): The objective of this report is to first provide ways of assessing this threat of contamination to groundwater and practical means of evaluating future vulnerability at the design stage itself. The report also looks at options for adaptation with such threat especially in dense habitations where both on-site sanitation and drinking water facilities are spaced very closely. The study is based on review of literature, discussion with experts and practitioners and calibrating these with presentations in public forums. The presented “Policy Review” and “Technical Review” parts of this report attends to the needs of planners, aid agencies, researchers and practitioners to unravel through the mesh of this question and find reasonable solutions that can make headway. Presented also is a simple spreadsheet tool that summarizes the learnings and offers a method to assess vulnerability and compare alternatives.
Diversion for safe sanitation: Flushable urine-diverting dry toilet with on-site wash water recycling embedded in a concept of transport logistics and treatment
Various documents on results from research grant
Eawag (Switzerland) in cooperation with EOOS (Austria)
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Tove Larsen is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/106-user-interface/2956-diversion-for-safe-sanitation-grant-on-advanced-toilet-with-on-site-water-recovery-eawag-and-eoos-switzerland-and-austria Short description of the project: The Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) and industrial design company EOOS develop a urine-diverting dry toilet with the additional feature of an integrated wash water recovery that allows for the comfort of hand washing and toilet cleaning. The squatting “diversion toilet” pan separates three streams: undiluted urine, dry feces and wash water. The used water is treated on-site based on ultrafiltration and recycled for the same purposes. Separated urine and feces are transported to a semi-decentralized recovery plant (scale: ~800-1000 persons) where nutrients and energy are recovered. Goal(s): The goal of RTTC Phase 1 (August 2011 – July 2012) was to design a urine-diverting dry toilet, that is user-friendly, attractive, hygienic, and allows for the use of water for personal hygiene and cleaning of the toilet surface and to deliver proof of the recycling technology as well as the proof of transport logistics and treatment concepts. Goal of RTTC phase 2 (November 2012- February 2014) is to further develop the “diversion toilet” design and the on-site water recovery technology and to finally demonstrate an integrated toilet prototype “in an operational environment” (Technology Readiness Level TRL 7). Furthermore, the treatment technology for urine and the cooperation with external partners for feces treatment will be further developed to be demonstrated “in a relevant environment” (TRL 6). Additionally, a proof of concept will be delivered for a further development of the toilet with on-site feces and urine treatment (= “diversion autarky” toilet) (TRL5). Start and end date: Phase 2: November 2012- February 2014 Funding for this research currently ongoing (yes/no): Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Swiss Development Cooperation (for the business model), Eawag and EOOS in-kind funding Research or implementation partners: • EOOS, Austria • Makerere University, Uganda +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: Diversion for safe sanitation (2012)
Various documents on results from research grant
Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor, London
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Andy Narracott is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment-and-others/4000-bringing-sanitation-innovations-to-market-b-sim-wsup-uk-and-ghana-zambia-kenya-bangladesh Short description of the project: This grant will support a four year program aimed at using new sanitation technologies to activate and expand the sanitation market in four cities in Africa and South Asia. Last year, the Foundation put sanitation on the map when it issued a challenge to design toilets that can capture and process human waste without piped water, sewer or electrical connections, and transform human waste into useful resources, such as energy and water, at an affordable price. WSUP believes that great technology is only the beginning. For technology to translate into improved services, we need a deep understanding of the users and markets in which the technology will operate, as we need supportive and strong local institutions. The project will prime the market for the rapid uptake of sanitation services and create the right environment for the market based scale-up of new and innovative sanitation options and service models which will make a significant contribution to the growing challenge of urban sanitation. Goal: The goal of the project is to significantly improve on-site sanitation services being delivered in four locations in the developing world. The aim for an ‘excellent’ outcome of this project is at least 10% of the city wide on-site sanitation market in each location, an estimated 375,000 people, accessing improved services at a cost of $0.05 per consumer per day or less, lower costs and higher margins for faecal sludge management (FSM) operators and on-going investment for service expansion in each location by October 2016. Objectives: The program has four sub objectives: 1. Establish a technology-independent working value chain and a supportive institutional environment 2. To utilise new designs of latrine to activate the on-site sanitation market at city scale in Rangpur, Bangladesh & a secondary town in the Rift Valley, Kenya (TBC in design phase) 3. To utilise new pit emptying technology to activate the on-site sanitation market at city scale in Lusaka, Zambia 4. To utilise a new sludge treatment process, from the Foundation's pipeline, or elsewhere, to activate the on-site sanitation market at city scale in Kumasi, Ghana Current state of affairs: As at 5th March 2013: Zambia: Building implementation team. Carrying out background research on the pit-emptying technologies and businesses, institutional touch-points and analogous inspiration. Currently partnering with IDEO.org to use human-centered design methodologies to develop, test, and refine insights into a viable business model for a pit emptying technology. Ghana: initiating market research to understand the local market potential for human waste-derived products. Carrying out an analysis of the institutional environment surrounding the transport, storage, processing and sale of human-waste derived products. Bangladesh: Building implementation team. Carrying out background research on the sanitation value chain and seeking out analogous inspiration. Initiating market research to understand the local market and institutional touch-points for re-invented toilets. Kenya: Beginning 2nd April 2013. +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: ??
Various documents on results from research grant
North Carolina State University, USA
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Francis de los Reyes is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/99-faecal-sludge-transport/4252-power-auger-modification-to-empty-pits-north-carolina-state-university-usa-and-south-africa Goal(s)of the project: The overall objective of the Phase I project was to modify and test a portable, gasoline powered earth auger that can be used to more efficiently and hygienically empty septic tanks, cesspits and latrines. Research or implementation partners: Partners in Development, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa Further researchers involved: Robert Borden, Tate Rogers +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: Presentation on Hygienic Pit Emptying with Low Cost Auger Pump (FSM-2 Conference in Durban, South Africa, Oct. 2012)
Energy-Producing Waterless Toilet System (Waterless toilet system that is linked to anaerobic digestion and fertilizer production systems in Antananarivo, Madagascar)
Various documents on results from research grant
Loowatt Ltd, UK
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Virginia Gardiner is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/4255-an-energy-producing-waterless-toilet-system-loowatt-uk-and-madagascar Short description of the project: Loowatt received GCE Phase 1 funding in 2011 to implement the Antananarivo Pilot. The system began to serve paying customers in late 2012. Goal(s): In this project, Loowatt Ltd. further developed and tested a waterless toilet that seals and stores waste in biodegradable film, within a portable container, for easy transport to a local anaerobic digester. The toilet was functionally resolved in 2011 and had been tested extensively, first in the company’s UK office, and then in a London community. Loowatt implemented a pilot system including a toilet, anaerobic digester, and fertilizer production facility in Antananarivo, Madagascar, which has now been serving paying toilet and energy customers, and producing compost, since November 2012. All system components were designed and fully specified by Loowatt Ltd. Additional local support was provided by Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor. Loowatt’s unique technology has applications in many parts of the world and the company is looking to expand its operations in 2013. Objectives: Loowatt Ltd.’s objective is to produce commodity-generating, clean, and intelligent waterless toilet systems. Further team members: Iain Purves +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: 1 - Culturally and financially sustainable applications of loowatt technology in antananarivo, madagascar – early feedback (FSM-2 Conference in Durban, South Africa, Oct. 2012) 2 - Presentation on Loowatt Pilot Project in Madagascar - early results (FSM-2 Conference in Durban, South Africa, Oct. 2012)
Various documents on results from research grant
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), London, UK and Bearvalley Ventures, UK
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Jeroen Ensink is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/4085-on-site-sanitation-based-on-bio-additives-and-pit-design-lsth-uk-and-tanzania-south-africa-and-vietnam Short description of the project: The project assesses the potential of modern biotechnology to deliver effective bio-additives which can accelerate decomposition processes and extend the lifetime of pit latrines. It will also build a sound scientific understanding of the key factors influencing decomposition processes, including the potential of pit design to improve fill rates and longevity. At the same time, research will be undertaken to build a deeper understanding of the current user experience, needs and aspirations of on-site sanitation that can be used to inspire improved, lower cost on-site sanitation options for the poor. Goals: To improve the lives of those with access to poor or insufficient sanitation by (i) delivering deeper knowledge of excreta decomposition, user needs and aspirations, and application of biotechnology and (ii) developing innovative, compelling concepts for non-piped sanitation Objectives: To identify scientific advances from a variety of fields that could improve pit latrine performance, for example by accelerating faeces decomposition, or decontaminating faeces To understand decomposition processes and the influence of on-site sanitation design factors on performance to support bio-additive and/or pit latrine product development. To assess the current/potential market and understand consumer needs/aspirations for on-site sanitation, so any new products/designs will be adopted and used To generate new on-site sanitation concepts for further development and commercialization, that may lead to a step change in performance, cost-effectiveness, and user adoption, use and maintenance of on-site sanitation (workstreams 5 and 6) To create a platform for future research and development based on key insights and potential partnerships to further accelerate improved on-site sanitation for the poor. Research or implementation partners: Ifakara Health Institute (Tanzania), Sanger Institute (UK), Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering (Hanoi, Vietnam), Glasgow University (UK), Imperial College (UK), LeAF Wageningen (NL), Wageningen University (NL), AgriProtein (SA). Centre for Alternative Technology (UK) Other researchers involved in the papers for download below: Gibson, W., Biran, A., Sumpter, C., Trevaskis, H., Furlong, C., Gray, P. BioCycle work with black soldier flies (larvae) is being done near Cape Town, at the AgriProtein experimental facilities: www.thebiocycle.com +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: 1 - Literature review (May 2010) 2 - Poster by Ian Banks from Stockholm World Water Week in 2012 on black soldier fly 3 - Report on progress (Aug. 2012) 4 - Presentation on pit latrine fill; key lessons learnt (Sept. 2012)
Various documents on results from research grant
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG), Duebendorf, Switzerland
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Kai Udert is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-nutrient-and-water-recovery/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa Short description of the project: By recovering nutrients from urine in small decentralised reactors, VUNA wants to develop a dry sanitation system, which is affordable for the poor, produces a valuable fertilizer, promotes entrepreneurship and reduces pollution of water resources. In this collaborative project, the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), eThekwini Water and Sanitation (EWS) in Durban, the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), and the Swiss Institutes of Technology Zurich and Lausanne (ETHZ and EPFL) work together to focus on three important aspects: 1. reactor technology 2. network management 3. socio-economic boundaries ++++++++++++++++ Documents available for download: Please check the project website (link below) to access the latest publications from this project. Videos available from presentations at the Durban FSM2 conference in October 2012 (see http://www.eawag.ch/forschung/eng/gruppen/vuna/documentation/index_EN at the bottom of the page): - VUNA: Nutrient Harvesting from Urine by Kai Udert - Incentivising sanitation through urine collection by Elizabeth Tilley - Nutrient recovery from urine: operation and optimization od reactors in eThekwini by Maximiliian Grau - Model-based performance evaluation of the collection of source-separated urine by Thomas Hug Or find the videos in the SuSanA Youtube channel (playlist): http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL0gMdVBup-4OapDe8cCzPXUXR0jb6eofe
Master Thesis at ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Botswana has made exceptional progress in providing access to sanitation in the past two decades. Today Botswana is one of the very few African countries that have already met the MDG sanitation target and is considered as a role model for country success. However, limited water resources and the inability to cover for further large investments make the current policy to subsidize waterborne sewerage extremely unsustainable. This raises a pressing need to find more cost-efficient and sustainable alternatives. In this thesis, a participatory approach was used to match existing technology options with the local context of a rural and a peri-urban village in Botswana. Workshops, interviews and a qualitative survey showed that most households are provided with basic sanitation, but inadequate planning and budgeting has been provided for management, emptying and maintenance of the existing infrastructure. Deficiencies in sanitation services were found to be larger on institutional than on household level. Resources (financial, human, technical, organizational) are usually available, but their mobilisation is a major challenge. This thesis proposes four systems that address the identified challenges by low technical complexity, high cost-effectiveness and a reduced risk of groundwater contamination. All systems allow for the reuse of greywater and nutrients and do not depend on continuous supply of water. Fossa alterna, the gendarme toilet, greywater tower gardens, diversion and reuse of urine and a jointly used local sludge treatment facility are some of the proposed technologies. It is further emphasized that the creation of public awareness and project ownership is essential for successful implementation of any sanitation system in the local context.
User perceptions of urine diversion dehydration toilets: Experiences from a cross-sectional study in eThekwini Municipality
Water SA, Vol. 39, No. 2, p. 305
This paper describes a very large survey (over 17 000 households) undertaken during December 2010 and January 2011 in Durban of households which had been provided with Urine Diversion Dehydrating Toilets (UDDTs). The current environmental challenges that most middle- and low-income countries have been experiencing has led to new environmentally sustainable and economically viable sanitation solutions, such as waterless systems with source separation of human waste. We conducted a cross-sectional study in eThekwini municipality to explore the post-implementation challenges of urine diversion dehydration toilets (UDDTs) after a decade of installation and the adaptive processes necessary to increase the sustained use of the toilets. A structured questionnaire was administered to 17 499 households in 65 rural and per-urban areas of eThekwini using mobile phone technology. Results report low levels of satisfaction with the facilities as well as an association between perceived smell in the toilets and malfunctioning of the pedestal, and low use of UDDTs when a pit latrine is present in the dwelling perimeter. Conclusions relate to the importance of educational and promotional activities that stress the economic return derived from reusing urine and excreta in agricultural activities.
A comparative study of policy and service delivery in Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, the Philippines, Timor-Leste, Uganda and Uzbekistan
Water, sanitation and hygiene education in schools – WASH in Schools – provides a healthy and comfortable environment that helps improve children’s health and boosts educational attendance and achievement. Schoolaged children in many countries, however, are unable to benefit from adequate access to WASH in Schools. Although all children are affected by lack of access, vulnerable populations often bear a disproportionate burden. Even in schools where adequate facilities are in place, some children are excluded due to discrimination against certain groups and the failure to provide facilities that meet special needs. Consequences of this exclusion have been shown to lead to inadequate and unequal learning environments, and increased drop-out and repetition rates, among affected groups of children.
Proceedings of the menstrual hygiene management in schools virtual conference 2012
WASH in Schools (WinS) fosters social inclusion and individual self-respect. By offering an alternative to the stigma and marginalization associated with hygiene issues, it empowers all students – and especially encourages girls and female teachers. In recognition of the positive impact on girls’ school attendance and achievement, initiatives around the world are addressing adolescent girls’ menstrual hygiene management (MHM) needs through WinS programming. Such interventions are increasingly implemented in both development and humanitarian emergency contexts.
Manually-driven decentralized Vortex bioreactors for the processing of (faecal sludge and) wastewater
Various documents on results from research grant
Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK
This library entry contains background documents and results for a grant that Mike Allen is leading and which is funded by the WSH Program of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation under the grant category Grand Challenges Explorations, Round 7 (GCE R7). Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/4152-vortex-bioreactors-for-the-processing-of-contaminated-wastewater Short description of the project: The bioreactor will find application in a wide variety of sanitation systems in a large number of countries: it is an extremely versatile tool for water sterilization. In this project, we will be focusing on testing the bioreactor as a means of treating the effluent separated from high BOD load sludge before further treatment, reuse or discharge. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Documents available for download (see below): 1. Presentation from FSM2 Conference in Durban, Oct. 2012 Videos from the reactor: http://youtu.be/W-9tbSc58NI http://youtu.be/dphJkGBIORQ http://youtu.be/JkEM5mgIvds
Case studies from Sunga, Srikhandapur, Nala and Bhusal Danda
Master Thesis at the Technische Universität - Berlin, Germany
Nepal is experiencing the fastest rate of urbanisation in the South Asian region,with sanitation and wastewater management emerging as some of the biggest challenges in urban areas. A huge percentage of the population still remain un-‐served in terms of toilet coverage, and virtually all wastewater and septage is discharged into rivers and water bodies without any form of treatment. As a result, urban environments are highly polluted, public health is jeopardized, and economic growth and development prospects are hindered.
Scenedesmus quadricauda for biodiesel production in photoautotrophic metabolism
This study aims to illustrate the possibility of using human urine as an alternative to chemical fertilizer and municipal wastewater for the cultivation of microalgae, to produce third generation biodiesel. Human urine has been considered as alternative for other conventional nutrient resource because it is enriched with macro and micro nutrients. In addition, this alternative does not introduce side effects such as being unsustainable, algae contamination and predation with other microorganism available in sewage like chemical fertilizer or municipal wastewater traditionally does. This study has tried to focus on first phase of microalgae biodiesel production which is to increase biomass in nutrients abundance. This is a prerequisite phase for lipid production and accumulation due to nutrients depletion or other sort of biological stresses. In this study, the growth rate of Scenedesmus quadricauda has been determined under standard culture (Bold solution) and urine with equivalent phosphorus concentration. The biomass production and chlorophyll generation were considered as indexes of primary production in phototrophic conditions. In all the experiments, diluted human urine performed more efficiently compared to other solutions and is shown as being totally compatible for algae growth and production. The chlorophyll production up to 0.31 mg/L and biomass production up to 64 mg L-1 d-1 dry mass were achieved. On the other hand, Nitrogen/Phosphorus availability is not well proportioned to promote algal biomass production equally. While phosphorus uptake by algae is over 95%, nitrogen removal cannot reach over 32% in higher urine concentrations which cause high nitrogen levels prevent lipids accumulation due to nitrogen depletion. Urine-based cultures under high levels of phosphorus (as limiting factor) demonstrate growth prohibition in concentrations over 3.0 mg P/L content which can be caused by toxicity of high free ammonia concentrations. Consequently, urine has recognized as reliable sustainable constitution for other nutrient resources for algal biomass production, but the nutrients levels should be manipulated in urine toward enhancing biodiesel production.
Angepasste Klärschlammkompostierung und Methoden der Entsorgung in Schwellen- und Entwicklungsländern (In German)
Adapted sludge composting and opportunities of disposal and reuse in threshold and developing countries
Institute of Sanitary Engineering at Technical University Braunschweig, Germany
Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der Berücksichtigung verschiedener Randbedingungen für eine mögliche Implementierung der Klärschlammkompostierung in einer Industriezone im Süden von Vietnam. Hierfür werden zunächst die Grundlagen und gängigen Verfahren der Klärschlammkompostierung beschrieben. Anschließend werden die zu beachtenden Randbedingungen bei der Anpassung von Technologien aus Industrieländern an örtliche Verhältnisse in Schwellen- und Entwicklungsländern erläutert sowie einige ausgewählte Erfahrungen der Klärschlammkompostierung in Schwellen- und Entwicklungsländern beschrieben. Letztendlich soll entschieden werden können, ob die Klärschlammkompostierung unter den Rahmenbedingungen der Industriezone Tra Noc als Klärschlammbehandlungs- und entsorgungsmethode zu empfehlen ist.
Various documents on results from research grant
Water for People, USA
This library entry contains background documents and results for a grant that Sherina Munyana is leading and which is funded by the WSH Program of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation under the grant category "Other". Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment-and-others/2897-catalyzing-sanitation-businesses-water-for-people-usa-malawi-uganda-india Short description of the project: With funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Water For People is implementing Sanitation as a Business (SAAB), a market‐based approach to sanitation intended to explore different methodologies for catalyzing and facilitating sanitation businesses in developing countries. It is a 4-year project ending July 2014 under which Water For People is working through Business Development Service (BDS) firms. BDS are for‐profit, private sector firms, who serve as the primary program implementers and are the main point of contact for sanitation entrepreneurs receiving support in business planning and expansion. SAAB is currently being implemented in seven different countries: Malawi, Rwanda and Uganda in Africa; Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador in South America; and Bihar and West Bengal in India. Currently, Water For People is working with these BDS partners: Uganda – Captiva Communications Malawi – Tools for Enterprise and Education Consultants (TEECS) Rwanda – Boundless Consultancy Group India – BASIX Bolivia - IMG Goal and objectives: The overriding goal under SAAB is developing a methodology for supporting sanitation businesses that, if successful, could provide an alternative to conventional sanitation approaches and lead to the significant expansion of sanitation services to poor people by the local private sector. The BDS firms are responsibe for identifying profitable business models for sustainable sanitation service delivery that benefit the poor (drawn on market research and through testing in different contexts in several countries). They then recruit entrepreneurs under these business models and will be responsible for providing ongoing business support to these entrepreneurs to strengthen the managerial and technical capacity of sanitation businesses. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Documents available for download (see below): 1. Business opportunity - pit emptying 2. BDS Selection Guideline 3. The role of Business Member Organizations in supporting sanitation entrepreneurs in Uganda, Rwanda and Malawi – A research study for Water For People 4. Presentation SAAB Africa 5. Presentation SAAB India (Update July 2012) 6. Presentation SAAB Uganda (Update June 2012) 7. Sanitation Finance Report, Access to Capital for Entrepreneurs and End-Users 8. Sustainable sanitation, Malawi (January 2013)
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG), Switzerland
Stored human urine can be used as a balanced fertilizer in agriculture. However there are some challenges related to field application of urine. Using urine as a liquid fertilizer through drip irrigation could help overcome some of these challenges. In this report we describe the results of a field study aimed at testing two possible ways of coombinig urine fertilization and drip irrigation. The main finding ist that a system in which the water / urine mix is allowed to settle in the tank of the irrigation system for 45 minutes does not lead to more work for the farmer in terms of inspecting and unblocking the emitters in the drip lines than using only water. A second system, where irrigation witz urine and water was done in sequence, did not function well. The most likely reason for this problem is a lack of pressure in the sysem when pure urine was used. For situations where a different type of drip irrigation system is used and for places with hard water (high calcium content) we recommend further small scale testing before investing in a large system.
DWA topics: new alternative sanitation systems
DWA German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste
This publication provides an overview of the state of art of new alternative sanitation systems in Germany. Additionally, two new technology characterisations on destillation and nitrification were added in 2013. Note that the pdf file below is only up until page 18. To obtain the entire document you have to purchase it from DWA, see link below.
Estimation du coût de construction des systèmes d’assainissement écologiques rural - Projet Pilote Dayet Ifrah (in French)
Estimation of construction costs for rural ecologial sanitation systems - Pilot Project Dayet Ifrah
Programme AGIRE, GIZ
(in French) Le présent travail constitue une estimation du cout des réalisations du projet pilote d’introduction des techniques d’assainissement écologique rural au Maroc. Dans le cadre du projet pilote d’assainissement écologique rural dans le cadre du programme d’Appui à la Gestion Intégrée des Ressources en Eau (AGIRE) de la coopération entre le Ministère de l’Energie des Mines de l’Eau et de l’Environnement (MEMEE), et l’Agence Allemande pour la Coopération Internationale (GIZ), mis en place dans le Moyen Atlas dans le village d’Ait Daoud ou Moussa situé autour du Lac « Dayet Ifrah » à 20 km de la ville d’Ifrane. Le cout a été estimé de deux façons : - Le cout de construction réel dans les conditions de l’atelier Atelier de construction des installations d'assainissement écologique à Dayet Ifrah- 14-25 juin 2010. - Le cout de construction théorique sur la base d’un recalcule des quantités des matériaux nécessaire aux constructions, les prix utilisé sont ceux de la région de Ifrane en 2010 et comprennent le cout du transport sur une distance moyenne de 60km.
Elaboration d’une approche de gestion intégrée des ressources en eau non-conventionnelles, basée sur l’analyse de la valeur potentielle des pratiques émergentes de l’épuration et de la valorisation des eaux usées au Maroc (in French)
Developping an approach towards integrated management of non-conventional water resources
IfaS, Université des Sciences Appliqué de Trêves - Umwelt-Campus Birkenfeld, Germany and AGIRE/GIZ Morocco
La présente étude concerne la préparation d’une étude d’analyse de la gestion des eaux non conventionnelles dans le cadre de la gestion intégrée des ressources en eau. L’intervention qui s’inscrit dans les objectifs du programme AGIRE vise à élaborer une approche de la gestion intégrée des ressources en eaux non conventionnelles basée sur l’identification et l’évaluation des options de traitement efficace et de la valorisation des eaux non conventionnelles en partant du principe de la gestion des flux de matières. Gestion du Projet: Prof. Dr. Peter Heck (Directeur IfaS) Elaboré par: Nina Runge, Dipl.-Betriebswirtin (FH), M.Sc., M.Eng., IfaS Marco Angilella, Dipl.-Betriebswirt (FH), IfaS Nele Sutterer, M.Sc. agr., IfaS Prof. Dr. Thomas Dockhorn, Institut für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, TU Braunschweig Wu, Xin, Institut für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, TU Braunschweig Anette Vocks, Institut für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, TU Braunschweig Joachim Böttcher, Areal GmbH Deepak Gajurel, Areal GmbH Silvia Ohms, Areal GmbH Dr. Ingo Bruch, Büro Bruch Antonin Cougnet, Roediger Vacuum Prof. Brahim Soudi, Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II Dr. Fatiha El Hafiane, Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II Prof. Said Rhouzlane
Water & sanitation for the urban poor (WSUP), London, GB
Discussion paper for WSUP/IWA workshop at AfricaSan, Kigali 19th July 2011
The management of faecal sludge from onsite toilets (pit latrines and septic tanks) is a notoriously difficult problem in dense low-income urban communities: often sludge is dumped directly to the local environment, with likely severe negative impacts on health. However, municipal governments and utilities often accept responsibility only for sewerage, not for faecal sludge management (FSM). This paper argues that urban sanitation planning needs to consider sewerage and FSM in an integrated way: even when —as in many African cities— the long-term aim is to achieve sewerage of all densely populated districts, this aim is unlikely to be achieved for several decades, and in the meantime appropriate solutions are required for FSM. In particular, we argue that sanitation planning and associated investment need to provide at least for final sludge disposal, and possibly for other aspects of FSM: we can reasonably expect private operators to manage collection of sludge from households, but public involvement will generally be required for later stages in sludge transport, treatment and disposal. In other words, we argue that householder payments will be sufficient to finance market-driven primary collection and possibly ongoing transport (as in the WSUP/Unilever Uniloo model, for example); but public finance will also be required for ongoing transport and/or final disposal. This paper outlines the sanitation planning situation in five cities in which WSUP is currently working: - Maputo (Mozambique) - Antananarivo (Madagasca) - Nairobi (Kenya) - Lusaka (Zambia) - Dhaka (Senegal) and discusses the FSM approaches being considered in each city. We argue that planners should pay particular attention to investment in local sludge holding tanks and/or controlled sewer disposal points, and low-cost final disposal sites.
International Ambition for Water Technology. WETSUS Congress, October 5-6 2009, Leeuwarden, Netherlands, Center of Excellence for sustainable water technology (WETSUS)
The plant nutrients consumed in human society today are lost through the established wastewater treatment systems in industrialised countries as well as via insufficient or non-existent handling of sewage in the developing world. New sanitation systems have been designated to overcome this failure. The source separated wastewater streams collected within these systems contain a high nutrient content, and can be used as fertiliser as well as soil conditioner after appropriate storage and/or treatment. Application in agriculture with existing techniques is feasible. However, pathogens and pharmaceuticals contained in these fertiliser types are a potential hazard. Nevertheless, storage and appropriate treatment can minimise the risks. The products deriving from these systems have a high potential to preserve available plant nutrient resources and deficiencies in agriculture as well as being able to substitute synthetic plant nutrients and at the same time prevent unwanted environmental nutrient over-enrichment.
Expert reports about the pilot project Dayet Ifrah - Missions 1 to 4
GIZ, Programme AGIRE, Rabat, Morocco
This library entry contains 4 mission reports about the pilot project in Dayet Ifrah, where a biogas digester, constructed wetland and UDDTs have been built.
in French: Les techniques d’épuration des eaux usées à faibles coûts
Faculté Universitaire des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux, Belgium; EU project on Development of Teaching and Training Modules for Higher Education on Low-Cost Wastewater Treatment, Contract VN/Asia-Link/012
This document is available in English and French. The overall objective of the project which involved Chinese, Vietnamese, Danish and Belgian universities was to contribute to the improvement of the heoretical capabilities in wastewater treatment in rapidly developing urban and rural areas of China and Vietnam, by means of exchanging and developing new concepts and methods of sustainable sanitation. The urbanisation process is proceeding rather rapidly in Asia, but the water supply and drainage systems in the urban and periurban centres remain poor and deficient, with no common facilities for wastewater treatment available. With the increasing pressure on water resources in the world, it is also envisioned that the development and large-scale implementation of low-cost sanitation methods will become crucial for resolving the needs of rapidly expanding cities and suburban areas. The objective of the project was also to upgrade the skills of current and future Chinese and Vietnamese engineers in low-cost wastewater treatment, as those qualifications are highly demanded on the labour market nowadays. This can be explained by the fact that the human resources capable to work for improving environmental sanitation in China and Vietnam are currently insufficient and the needs in wastewater treatment engineers are expected to increase in the following years. Another overall goal was to foster the exchange of ideas, concepts, and methods, which will greatly contribute to increase the awareness of European and Asian sanitation technologies in partner countries. Those technologies can later be used and developed by the different institutions involved in the action. The specific objective of the project was to develop a teaching curriculum for new courses on low-cost wastewater treatment for MSc level students in Europe and Asia. The present course reviews the different low-cost treatment methods existing in the different partner countries and focuses on sharing the experience of processes developed and successfully applied by the partner institutions in their respective countries. Those processes usually use low-cost and light techniques to treat wastewater and reuse the treated wastewater for irrigation or to reduce the pathogens or pollutants. Through teaching and training of postgraduate students, the project raises awareness and strengthens the capacity of the involved professionals in alternative sanitation concepts and methods. The curriculum developed for the MSc level is also used in the European partner universities, which integrate the curriculum in their respective educational programmes. Project title: Development of Teaching and Training Modules for Higher Education on Low-Cost Wastewater Treatment, Contract VN/Asia-Link/012 (113128) 2005-2008 (funded by the EU)
Choisir des solutions techniques adaptées pour l'assainissement liquide (in English and French)
pS-Eau, Paris, France
This book is part of a series of 6 books, available in French (www.pseau.org/smc/guides) GUIDE SMC NUMÉRO 1 : Elaborer une stratégie municipale concertée pour l’eau et l’assainissement GUIDE SMC NUMÉRO 2 : Créer une dynamique régionale pour améliorer les services locaux d’eau potable et d’assainissement dans les petites villes africaines GUIDE SMC NUMÉRO 3 : Analyser la demande des usagers – et futurs usagers – des services d’eau et d’assainissement dans les villes africaines GUIDE SMC NUMÉRO 4 : Choisir des solutions techniques pour l'assainissement GUIDE SMC NUMÉRO 5 : Gérer les toilettes et les douches publiques GUIDE NUMÉRO 6 : Guide 6: Financer la filière assainissement en Afrique subsaharienne and in English (http://www.pseau.org/fr/recherche-developpement/production/smc/six-methodological-guides). All the CMS methodological guides are available on the pS-Eau Open library, in French and English:www.pseau.org/outils/biblio/index.php?pgmpseau_id=64&l=fr CMS guide n°1: How to develop a concerted municipal strategy for water and sanitation www.pseau.org/outils/biblio/resume.php?d=2956&l=fr CMS guide n°2: How to create a regional dynamic to improve local water supply and sanitation services in small towns in Africa www.pseau.org/outils/biblio/resume.php?d=2624&l=fr CMS Guide n°3: How to analyze the demand of current and future users for water and sanitation services in towns and cities in Africa www.pseau.org/outils/biblio/resume.php?d=2814&l=fr CMS guide n°4: How to select appropriate technical solutions for sanitation www.pseau.org/outils/biblio/resume.php?d=2632&l=fr CMS guide n°5: How to manage public toilets and showers www.pseau.org/outils/biblio/resume.php?d=2625&l=fr CMS Guide n°6: Financing sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa www.pseau.org/outils/biblio/resume.php?d=2993&l=fr The purpose of this guide (How to select appropriate technical solutions for sanitation) is to assist local contracting authorities and their partners in identifying those sanitation technologies best suited to the different contexts that exist within their town. The first part of the guide contains a planning process and a set of criteria to be completed; these assist you in characterizing each area of intervention so that you are then in a position to identify the most appropriate technical solutions. The second part of the guide consists of technical factsheets which give a practical overview of the technical and economic characteristics, the operating principle and the pros and cons of the 29 sanitation technology options most commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa. +++++++++++++ in French: Ce guide se focalise sur le cheminement à suivre pour choisir une technologie d'assainissement. Il n'est donc pas un guide technique à proprement parler. S'il propose des solutions techniques adaptées au sein de fiches techniques présentées en seconde partie, il n'en détaille pas la mise en oeuvre concrète mais renvoie vers les ouvrages techniques adéquats. La conception, le dimensionnement et la construction des ouvrages d'assainissement peuvent alors, selon les cas, être réalisés à partir de ces documents techniques (tels que mentionnés dans les fiches techniques correspondantes) ou relever de l'expertise d'un bureau d'étude spécialisé. ++++++++++++ Available for download below for your convenience are Guide 4 and 6. Désille, D., Le Jallé, C., Toubkiss, J., Valfrey-Visser, B. (2011) Guide méthodologique no. 6 : Financer la filière assainissement en Afrique subsaharienne, pS-Eau, France. http://www.pseau.org/outils/biblio/index.php?pgmpseau_id=64&l=fr
Various documents about the biogas programmes for the animal husbandry sector in Vietnam and for rural households in Nepal
Biogas Project Offices, SNV, Netherlands Development Organization
In this library entry, there are three documents discussing the impacts of biogas plants in Vietnam and Nepal. Furthermore, financing, implementation, promotion and monitoring of biogas systems are topics of the documents. ++++++++++++++++++++++++ (1) "Biogas Programme for the Animal Husbandry Sector in Vietnam - Domestic biogas and CDM financing" - Heegde, F., Netherlands Development Organization (2005) Summary: For selected countries in Asia, the Netherlands’ Asia Biogas Programme aims to support large-scale dissemination of domestic biogas. In this paper the outline of such a large scale biogas programme (BP II in Vietnam) is discussed in relation with CDM financing. Without claiming to be exhaustive, the paper attempts to explain the “origins” of greenhouse gas reduction by domestic biogas plants and the potential and actual CDM revenue that would result from this. Subsequently, the paper presents the modality to apply this CDM revenue in the biogas programme and its impact on the “finance gap” for the participating households. Finally, the monitoring requirements for the programme, related with the CDM are briefly mentioned. +++++++++++++++++ (2) "Support Project to the Biogas Programme for the Animal Husbandry Sector in some Provinces of Vietnam" - Biogas Project Office Hanoi (2006) Summary: BP I operated through a comprehensive programme set-up consisting of a wide range of activities: promotion/marketing, investment subsidy on plants, quality control, research and development, training, extension, monitoring and evaluation, institutional support and management by BPO and PBPOs. The project very effectively provided a flat-rate subsidy of VND 1 million to households that have a biogas plant constructed. +++++++++++++ (3) "The Nepal Biogas Support Program: A successful model of public private partnership for rural household energy supply" - Bajgain, S., Shakya, I. (2005) Summary: In 1992 the Government of Nepal together with the Netherlands Government engaged support activities to promote the use of biogas in Nepal. The Biogas Support Program (BSP) was initiated by the Netherlands Development Organisation, SNV, with the objective of promoting a wide-scale use of biogas as a sub-stitute for fuelwood, agricultural residues, animal dung and kerosene that are generally used for cooking and lighting in most rural households. In the last decade, the promotion of biogas In Nepal has resulted in significant social and financial benefits. The technical adaptation of biogas systems, designed specifically for Nepalese conditions, has made remarkable progress during the past decade, and the outlook is excellent for continued improvements and expanded use.
In this library entry you find documents about conventional wastewater und reuse systems, each connected with a case study or pilot project. These documents, and more, have been compiled for a document list to support the development of a national rural sanitation strategy in Morocco. See the AGIRE website for more information and to download the document list: http://www.agire-maroc.org/activites/assainissement-et-reutilisation-des-eaux-usees/groupes-travail-pnar-fevrier-2013-rabat.html ++++++++++++ (1) "The Role Of The Institutional Setting For Decentralized Wastewater Treatment And Reuse – A Case Study Of Jordan" - Ines Dombrowsky, Waltina Scheumann, Nele Lienhoop, Tamer Al Assad, Sawsan Zaater, Ra´ed Daoud (2010) Summary: This report has been prepared in the context of the research project “Integrated Water Resources Management in the Lower Jordan Rift Valley - Sustainable Management of Available Water Resources with Innovative Technologies” (SMART) funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Within this multi-country, multi-disciplinary project, one component deals with research on opportunities for the mobilization of additional water through decentralized wastewater treatment and reuse (WWT&R). This topic is being addressed in a multi-disciplinary way, taking technological, economic, social and institutional aspects into account. Integrated Water Resources Management in the Lower Jordan Rift Valley Sustainable Management of Available Water Resources with Innovative Technologies Working package 7: Socio-economic aspects University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany, available at: http://www.iwrm-smart.org +++++++++++++++ (2) "Hybrid Constructed Wetland For Small Community Wastewater Treatment And Reuse" - B. El Hamouri, C. Kinsley, A. Crolla (2011) Summary: A pilot hybrid constructed wetland system was established in 2007 at the Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II in Rabat, Morocco, in order to evaluate and optimize system design for small community wastewater treatment and reuse in Morocco. The technology treats a portion of the campus wastewater (12 m3/d) and occupies 4.5 m2/capita. The hybrid constructed wetland technology is a promising wastewater treatment alternative for small communities in Morocco and for communities with comparable socio-economic and climatic conditions. The system has been shown to function well over four years of continuous operation. The passive wetland technology provides several advantages including: low capital and operating costs, low energy requirements and high levels of treatment. The system produces tertiary quality effluent suitable for direct discharge or for irrigation of forage crops, cereals and fruit trees while reducing pathogen risk and protecting groundwater from excess nitrogen leaching. ++++++++++++++++ (3) "Case Study Wastewater Treatment And Reuse - El Attaouia, Morocco" - B. El Hamouri, C. Kinsley, A. Crolla (2011) Summary: Wastewater treatment in rural areas of Morocco is significantly lacking, with uncontrolled discharge the norm. Due to a lack of irrigation options, farmers often use untreated wastewater and subject themselves and consumers to significant health risks. In the case of Morocco, approximately 70 million m3 of untreated wastewater are used each year without any sanitary precautions to irrigate an area of more than 7000 hectares. Wastewater treatment technologies with low energy demand and low maintenance requirements are necessary for the sustainable wastewater management in poor to middle income countries. Treated effluent is an important potential source of irrigation water for arid and semi-arid regions. The system in El Attaouia, Morocco, provides a good example of wastewater treatment and agricultural reuse in an arid climate which can be replicated in similar rural towns and villages. Organisations involved: Dept. d’Infrastructure, eau et énergie, Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, Rabat, Morocco Ontario Rural Wastewater Centre, Université de Guelph-Campus d’Alfred, Alfred, Ontario, Canada Support for the development of this case study was provided by the Canadian International Development Agency — University Partnerships in Cooperation and Development Program. Copies may be found at: www.orwc.uoguelph.ca
Cape Town's problematic vacuum sewer: A reflection on the technical, social and institutional blaockages that constrain municipal management
12th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Porto Alegro, Brazil
South Africa's first vacuum sewerage system was completed in Kosovo, an informal settlement (shantytown or slum) in Cape Town in February 2009. Although hailed by project consultants and municipal officals as the ideal technology for the Cape Flat's level landscape, high groundwater table and sandy soils, the vacuum sewer has proved problematic, being continously blocked since inception by gross solids in its collection chambers. Residents currently use the system's collection as 40-litre conservancy tanks emptied three times a week. Kososvo's sanitation problem has become yet another example of how a technologically sound concept has failed disastrously in its implementation in a developing world context. The paper offers evidence of why the system was bound to fail as it was inherently a contextually inappropriate technology for Kosovo as implemented, and furthermore one that was poorly managed due to limited technical knowledge, institutional conflict and instability within the municipal structures of the City of Cape Town. It suggests that improving the functioning of the system requieres the municipality to directly address the technical, social and institutional constraints that are jointly responsible for its failure.
Irrigation with wastewater and health
International Water Management Institute (IWMI)
L’utilisation des eaux usées pour l’irrigation en agriculture peut se traduire par de nombreux avantages pour presque tous les pays, mais elle s’avère particulièrement utile et rentable dans les pays arides et semi-arides à faible revenu. Dans de telles régions, les ressources en eau supplémentaire à faible coût peuvent constituer un gain important pour le bien-être et la santé des humains, tout en augmentant les possibilités de produire des aliments et des emplois destinés aux populations pauvres qui vivent aux abords des villes et villages, comportant une source abondante de cours d’eaux usées. Cependant, dans les régions humides de pays à revenus faible et intermédiaire, les eaux usées qui s’écoulent depuis d’importantes zones urbaines ne sont pas traitées et elles sont chargées de l’éventail complet des pathogènes bactériens, viraux, protozoaires et helminthiques excrétés et endémiques dans la communauté. Ces eaux posent des risques importants pour la santé lorsqu’elles s’intègrent aux sources d’eau utilisées pour l’irrigation.
Omni-Ingestor Phase 2, Milestone 1
Consultancy report by Synapse (USA) commissioned by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA
This document explores various available dewatering technologies, and analyzes their applicability for separating the liquid and solid components of septic holding tanks. The purpose of this exercise is to identify ways to reduce the quantity of solid materials that must be transported away after desludging a pit or septic tank, presuming the produced water could be easily treated and safely reused or discharged on site or nearby. The technologies reviewed are discussed for their applicability to a specific project concept; reviews do not address more general applicability. For others with dewatering needs, however, this review may provide some directional guidance. This report was created as part of the development effort for the Omni-Ingestor: a modular equipment set designed to extract and process fecal sludge from pit latrines and septic tanks. This work is being performed under a contract with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation’s Water, Sanitation, and Hygeine department. Its purpose is to explore available dewatering technologies, and analyze their applicability towards the Omni-Ingestor design. Its intention is neither to promote, nor to discredit, any specific vendor, technology, or manufacturer. One of the critical capabilities of the Omni-Ingestor is the ability to separate the liquid and solid components of septic holding tanks to reduce the quantity of material that must be transported away. The system in the Omni-Ingestor must meet several requirements, as outlined in the “Ejected Material Guidelines D5.pdf” document.1 To summarize, the requirements are: • Input liquid septage will be between 0% and 5% solids. • Output liquid after separation and dewatering must have: o Less than 20mg/l TSS o Less than 20mg/l BOD o Less than 50mg/l COD o Turbidity less than 200 NTU o pH between 6.0 and 9.0 • Output solids after dewatering must have: o All free water be removed (TS value of 12%-15%) - The target TS will be 25% - Higher TS values are permitted but the cost of the additional performance will need to be relatively low. • The benefits of the system must be economically justifiable. The system(s) Synapse recommends pursuing meet or come close to meeting these targets. In cases where they do not meet the target requirements, Synapse holds the position that increasing the performance to meet the requirements is either possible through a redesign of the system, reducing system cost via mass production and DFM, or is not practical and would result in a substantial increase in system cost.
Costs and Benefits and Programme Implementation
GTZ, Eschborn, Germany
Before a biogas plant is built or a biogas program is implemented, a techno-economic assessment should be made. For this, two sets of cost-benefit analyses have to be carried out: · The macro-economic analysis (economic analysis) which compares the costs of a biogas program and the benefits for the country or the society. · The micro-economic analysis (financial analysis) which judges the profitability of a biogas unit from the point of view of the user. Even if today the technical performance of biogas plants no longer constitutes a problem, and even if regions favourable for biogas can be relatively easily identified, the establishing of an efficient and sustainable dissemination structure continues to remain the key problem of numerous biogas projects. In various countries, experiences with the dissemination of agricultural biogas systems exist. Depending on the stage of biogas development in a country or region, the structure of a biogas programme reflects the phases of implementation: · Research and development · Pilot programs · Dissemination · Networking In collaboration with: Naturgerechte Technologien, Bau- und Wirtschaftsberatung (TBW) GmbH, Germany
Various documents on results from research grant
Fontes Foundation, Norway
This library entry contains background documents and results for a grant that Andrew Larsen is leading and which is funded by the WSH Program of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation under the Grand Challenges Exploration (GCE) Round 6. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/106-user-interface-and-transportation The goal of this project is to design and conduct a small field test in Haiti of a new toilet block system that can be erected as a kit in high-density, difficult to serve communities such as refugee camps. Technical Design: On the technical side, the toilets are built from local lumber using reused vinyl billboard fabric. The fabric is stretched around lumber frames to make an inexpensive, robust and weatherproof toilet cubicle. Then, five cubicles are placed together over a common collection bin, which allows the toilet block to be very stable, even in high winds and torrential downpours. The billboard fabric is also used in the collection bin to form a bag (not shown in the drawing), that keeps all excreta from touching the ground. The stairs of each toilet extend to the ground forming wide support for the overall structure. The toilet block is synergistic, both in its ability to resist overturning, as well as in the use of a common collection system for feces, urine, toilet paper and sugarcane bagasse--a carbon material used to facilitate thermophilic composting of the excreta. This is not currently a urine diverting(UD) design but could be in the future.
Various documents on results from research grant
SuSan Design, Norway
This library entry contains background documents and results for a grant that Karsten Gjefle is leading and which is funded by the WSH Program of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation under the Grand Challenges Exploration (GCE) Round 6. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-nutrient-and-water-recovery ++++++++++++++++ The goal of this project is to design and test a low-cost system to rapidly turn human excreta into pathogen-free compost for use as fertilizer for farmers. What is the SuSan concept? We utilize research from agricultural sciences and industrial/service design competencies to improve products and implementation strategies. Susan Design strategy is to create turnover by returning the nutrients from human excreta as a safe agricultural input for farmers. Amplifying the demand amongst farmers will generate incentives for establishment and operation of sanitation services (toilets=production units). In order to offer sanitation services, Susan Design will develop and manage a value chain with the tools/products necessary to run the business, such as low cost household sanitation products, urban public- and school sanitation units, storage- /transport containers, treatment process and application tools/services for the farmers. How does it work? SuSan Design upgrades human excreta from pathogenic material to safe agricultural fertilizers and soil improvers in 45 days. SuSan Design will partner with communities, governments, NGOs and impact investors to set up rational, functional and dignifying public toilet facilities in urban areas and peri-urban areas, schools and refugee camps. We set up a viable and comprehensive franchise to operate all the elements in the system. Where is SuSan implemented? SuSan Design development and first implementation has taken place in Uganda 2011/2012. The project proved that we are able to produce safe fertilizer and soil improvement products in 45 days. The treatment system is a low tech design easy to scale up. +++++++++++++ The documents available for download below include: - Factsheets about SuSan Design - Presentation and paper from the FSM-2 Conference in Durban, South Africa (October 2012)
School of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
A comprehensive review of literature relating to the design and operation of pit latrines, processes in pit latrines and pit latrine additives was undertaken. There is not much formal scientific literature in terms of journal publications or conference proceedings that provide much insight into the processes in pit latrines. However there is a wide range of literature relating to design, operation and maintenance issues that shed some light on the nature of pit latrine contents and the processes that may occur there. It was concluded that the dominant mechanism of stabilisation in the unaerated bulk of the pit latrine contents would be anaerobic digestion, while some aerobic degradation would occur at the top layers. In most pits which are not sealed, movement of moisture in and out of the pits depends on the type of soil/rock in which the pit is located, the presence and height of groundwater and the amount of moisture added to the pit. Soluble and to a lesser extent colloidal material move in and out of the pit with the moisture flow. The movement of soluble organic material out of the pit with moisture flow may be a significant mechanism of removal of organic content from the pit. The literature review also highlighted the fact that there is usually a lot of non-degradable material in pits, and that the amount and type of material in the pit depended on user habits and was linked to the solid refuse removal services available to the pit users.
Various documents on results from research grant
Eram Scientific Solutions, India
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Bincy Baby is leading and which is funded by the WSH Program of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation under the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge (RTTC) Round 2. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-high-tech-processes-and-biotechnology Eram developed India's first electronic public toilet, the 'eToilet', with unique automated features to maximize user experience (e.g. payment mechanism, doors, washing mechanisms). In this project, Eram proposes to refine the eToilet by minimizing water requirements, improving sterilization mechanisms, and reducing necessary power consumption. The final eToilet will be a completely standalone system, integrated with high-end technologies, that is sustainable in terms of cost and efficiency. Availabe for download below: - Presentation about the eToilet - Presentation and paper from the Faecal Sludge Management (FSM-2) Conference in Durban, South Africa in October 2012
Volumes 1 to 3
WRC Report No. 1745/1/12, Water Research Commission, South Africa
Volume 1: Understanding sludge accumulation in VIPs and strategies for emptying full pits The task of providing adequate sanitation does not end with building toilets. On-site systems will eventually reach capacity and if a long-term plan for their maintenance, supported by a budget, is not in place, full toilets will become unusable and households will be effectively without basic sanitation once again. Water Services Authorities need urgently to assess the real requirements of the basic sanitation systems they have delivered and put plans, policies and budgets in place to maintain these systems if they are to avoid a sanitation crisis in the near future. To date, additives currently being marketed to reduce pit filling have proven ineffective. While thepotential for significantly enhancing processes already occurring in the pit seems limited, there is a need for standard methods to be established in order to investigate the effectiveness of new products. In the absence of this, municipal funds are better invested in proven methods of sludge removal. The experience of municipalities, such as eThekwini, which have led the way in pit emptying has demonstrated that vacuum tankers are not always effective for maintaining VIP systems. The development of more appropriate technologies shows promise and prototypes designed during this research provide a strong basis for further development. The presence of waste in the pits of toilets represents an enormous obstacle to effective pit emptying. Placing a high priority on instituting and maintaining reliable solid waste collection programmes will go a long way to solving this problem. Sludge removed from a pit represents a resource, in terms of its nutrient content. Every effort should be made to utilise it beneficially rather dispose of it as a waste. ++++++++++++ Volume 2: How fast do pit toilets fill up? A scientific understanding of sludge build up and accumulation in pit latrines Previous studies of on-site systems indicate a wide range of accumulation rates for wet (septic tank) systems (22 ℓ/c.a to 95 ℓ/c.a) as well as for pit latrines (19 ℓ/c.a to 70 ℓ/c.a). Filling rates for pit latrines observed in this study ranged from 21 ℓ/c.a to 64 ℓ/c.a. It was found that pits typically filled at a rate ranging from 200 ℓ/annum to 500 ℓ/annum regardless of the number of users. For pit design, using a figure of 40 ℓ/c.a meets household requirements, while basing pit emptying programmes on a figure of 60 ℓ/c.a ensures that pits do not reach capacity before the commencement of the planned emptying cycle. Some municipalities have turned to products marketed to slow or halt accumulation in the pit in the hope that this will significantly reduce the frequency at which they will need to be serviced or eliminate the need altogether. In order to investigate the efficacy of these products, the Water Research Commission has tested approximately 20 pit additives in field and laboratory trials. To date none have been found to be effective in reducing pit filling rates. It is vital that municipalities do not spend their sanitation budgets on products with no proven benefit, leaving inadequate funds to service their onsite sanitation systems with tried and tested methods when these products fail. Few municipalities have been proactive to date in terms of developing sanitation management programmes which integrate pit design and pit maintenance and where pit filling is monitored. As a result, many are likely to face a critical situation in the near future when pits reach capacity and they are ill prepared to respond. It is imperative that municipalities put programmes in place which are based on a sound understanding of the behaviour of users, geophysical characteristics of the area and system design so that they can manage the maintenance of systems efficiently and without compromising public health. +++++++++++++++++ Volume 3: The development of pit emptying technologies This report presents the design, development and testing of a number of prototypes of portable pit emptying technologies that were developed as part of Water Research Commission research project K5/1745. The designs which have been explored to date have been the pit screw auger, which uses a motorised soil auger to lift sludge from a pit, the Nano Vac and e Vac, which use piston pumps and vane pumps to suck relatively wet sludge from pits. In addition, a pressure vessel has been developed which can be used for collecting sludge or for pumping water or air into a pit to aid removal. Being portable by two people these technologies do overcome the issue of access and have proven viable when trialled on pig slurry. The eVac has in addition been used successfully to empty wettish pit latrines in the field, which it does with little difficulty. Being the most robust and the most compact of the devices, the eVac appears to have the most potential on pit latrines in the field, and should be the focus for further research and development work. ++++++++++ Flyer: Do Pit Additives Work (answer: no, they don't)
NASS Conference (novel alternative sanitation systems)
German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste (DWA), Hennef, Germany
The language of this event was German; the event description in German is given below. +++++++++++++++++++++ Die konventionellen Systeme der Abwasserbehandlung sind seit Jahrzehnten ein Garant für eine erfolgreiche Hygienevorsorge und saubere Umwelt in Deutschland. Jedoch hat sich in den vergangenen Jahren gezeigt, dass diese Systeme nur unflexibel auf die Anforderungen in Bezug auf Klima- und Ressourcenschutz reagieren können. Ein Paradigmenwechsel in der Siedlungswasserwirtschaft hin zu ressourcen-orientierten Systemen ist unausweichlich. Diesem Paradigmenwechsel stellen sich seit einigen Jahren hochrangige Wissenschaftler und Ingenieure im Rahmen des DWA Fachausschusses KA 1 „Neuartige Sanitärsysteme“ und dessen 7 Arbeitsgruppen. In den vergangenen 4 Jahren wurde ein Themenband erarbeitet, in dem wichtige Erkenntnisse und Ergebnisse aus Wissenschaft und Praxis zusammengefasst sind. Auf der Tagung DWA NASS „Neu-artige Sanitärsysteme“ in Weimar wird der Themenband einem breiten Fachpublikum vorgestellt. Ziel der Veranstaltung ist es, die Überlegungen und Erfahrungen zu neuartigen Sanitärsystemen systematisch darzustellen, Hilfestellungen für die Bewertung und Auswahl von Systemen und deren Integration in bestehende Systeme zu geben und Forschungs- und Entwicklungsbedarf aufzuzeigen. Der Fokus liegt auf der Anwendung der Systeme in Europa, legt aber zudem die Grundlagen für eine Übertragung auf andere Teile der Welt. Präsentationen des 1. Tags: Überblick: Was sind neuartige Sanitärsysteme (NASS)? Jörg Londong, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar Komponenten zur Erfassung, Ableitung und Behandlung von Teilströmen des häuslichen Abwassers Anton Peter-Fröhlich, Berliner Wasserbetriebe Von Komponenten zu Systemen Thomas Werner, Hamburg Wasser Nutzen und Wert von Produkten aus neuartigen Sanitärsystemen Heinrich Herbst; Grondmij DPU GmbH, Köln und Joachim Clemens, Universität Bonn Überblick über internationale Beispiele realisierter NASS Ralf Otterpohl, TU Hamburg Harburg Zukünftiger F+E-Bedarf im Bereich NASS Thomas Dockhorn, Universität Braunschweig Systemintegration: Koexistenz mit bestehender Infrastruktur?! Inka Kaufmann Alves, TU Kaiserslautern Präsentationen des 2. Tags: Hamburg Water Cycle in den Projekten Jenfeld und Karlshöhe - Planung, Technik Bemessung Zhiqiang Li, Dr.-Ing. Henning Schonlau, Hamburg Wasser Grauwasserrecycling im Hotel- und Gaststättengewerbe – Anforderungen, Technik und Realisierung Christopher Keysers, RWTH Aachen Flintenbreite: Betrieb, Organisation Oldenburg, Hochschule Ostwestfalen Lippe Umsetzung des DEUS-Konzeptes in Knittlingen: rechtliche Aspekte und Akzeptanz Thomas Hillenbrand, Fraunhofer ISI, Karlsruhe Fallstudien zur nachhaltigen Sanitärversorgung in Partnerländern der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit Dr. Elisabeth von Münch, GTZ, Eschborn ++++++++++++++++ Die Präsentation sind über den unten angegebenen Link verfügbar.
Various documents on results from research grant
Department of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering Washington University in St. Louis, USA
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Yinjie Tang is leading and which is funded by the WSH Program of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation under the Grand Challenge Exploration (GCE) Round 7. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/99-renewable-energy-systems Sewage sludge rich in carbohydrates and other nutrients could be a good feedstock for fuel/chemical production. In this study, fungal and engineered bacterial cultivations were integrated with a modified anaerobic digestion to accumulate fatty acids on sewage sludge. The anaerobic digestion was first adjusted to enable acetogenic bacteria to accumulate acetate. A fungus (Mortierella isabellina) and an engineered bacterium (Escherichia coli created by optimizing acetate utilization and fatty acid biosynthesis as well as overexpressing a regulatory transcription factor fadR) were then cultured on the acetate solution to accumulate fatty acids. The engineered bacterium had higher fatty acid yield and titer than the fungus. Both medium- and long-chain fatty acids (C12:0–C18:0) were produced by the engineered bacterium, while the fungus mainly synthesized long-chain fatty acids (C16:0–C18:3). This study demonstrated a potential path that combines fungus or engineered bacterium with anaerobic digestion to achieve simultaneous organic waste treatment and advanced biofuel production. Available documents: Presentation from Faecal Sludge Management (FSM-2) Conference in Durban, South Africa in October 2012 (see download below). Journal paper: Liu, Z., Ruan, Z., Xiao, Y., Yu, Y., Tang Y.J., Liao, W., Liu, Y. Integration of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge with advanced biofuel synthesis. Bioresource Technology. 2013. 132:166-170 You can get this article from the journal homepage (we cannot provide it for download here because it is protected by copyright): www.elsevier.com/locate/biortech
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