Operation and Maintenance
Successful Models for O&M of Sanitation Systems
The second issue of Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) focuses on "Successful models for operation and maintenance of sanitation systems".
Examples of different approaches and experiences of O&M in practise are shown. Four articles describe O&M systems in Africa and one paper focuses on public toilets in Austria. Especially the contributions from Kenya, Uganda and Malawi have one thing in common: They are still “insular‐projects”, which are at the very beginning to be taken up.
Issue 2 contains the following articles:
Public toilets in Vienna: Operation between cost efficiency and service for the public
This article reviews the status quo of public toilet facilities in Vienna. Specifically it deals with the 2004 recommendations of the municipal auditor concerning the closing of low‐frequented facilities, which are subject to a high degree of not‐intended use and the questions regarding the consequences of their closing, that were subsequently raised. This article explores, if employing sustainable operation and maintenance methods in public toilets in Vienna could prevent the closing of the relevant public toilet facilities or if other changes are necessary.
Sanitation as a Business: A new spin on the challenge of sanitation Operation and Maintenance
Bramley, S., Breslin, E.
Sanitation as a Business is a new program Water For People has tested in Malawi. The ideas behind this alternative to traditional sanitation programs are innovative and stem from a simple truth: We do not have the money or human capacity available to build everyone who lacks improved sanitation a latrine. More importantly, programs that build latrines consistently struggle to have impact or reach scale, and often distort the market environment in ways that undermine future sanitation development. Sanitation as a Business tries to shift sanitation programming by changing the incentives and bringing the private sector into sanitation in new ways. The key to Sanitation as a Business is to make ongoing sanitation services the goal, rather than the latrine itself. When sanitation services are profitable and businesses see everyone without a latrine as a potential customer, businesses—rather than NGOs—will expand latrine coverage to increase their profit margin.
Operation and Maintenance of sanitation systems in two public institutions: Experiences from Uganda
Müllegger, E., Freiberger, E.
In this article two examples of resource‐oriented sanitation systems in Ugandan institutions are presented. The implementation of these systems led to an improvement of the sanitation situation in these institutions; the human waste is now safely disposed of and reused. In the Kalungu Girls Secondary School pupils are responsible for operating the urine diverting dry toilets. In the Maracha Hospital three attendants are employed to operate the sanitation system. Both institutions are gaining an extra benefit by selling the compost (Maracha) or using it in the own gardens (Kalungu).
Private sector involvement in operating a sanitation system with urine diversion dry toilets in Nakuru, Kenya
Muchiri, E., Mutua, B., Müllegger, E.
Benefits of urine diversion dry toilets (UDDTs) can only be achieved when the sanitation facilities operate continuously and to full capacity in conformity with acceptable standards of quantity and quality. However, there is a demonstrated link between long term sustainability of a sanitation system and the effective operation and maintenance (O&M) of the system. Problems with O&M are recognized as a key constraint to sustainability while efficient O&M is identified as a key in enhancing the sustainability of systems. Traditionally, municipalities and utilities are responsible for centralised O&M systems, which apparently have failed in many developing countries. Increasingly, donors, government departments and NGO’s working with communities in infrastructure, water and sanitation development projects are encouraging the stakeholders or the service users to take up management responsibility of their systems and ensure they are running and in good condition. This paper demonstrates one such arrangement in Nakuru where a private sector service provider (PSSP) is involved in a holistic service provision and O&M of UDDTs, which is hoped to improve the efficiency, resource recovery, increased acceptance and rise in demand for the UDDTs in Nakuru Municipality.
Operation and Maintenance of water and sanitation systems in northern Uganda
The main purpose of this paper is to identify possible challenges that can severely affect the selection and implementation of successful operation and maintenance strategies. For this a case study from AVSI’s work in Northern Uganda is used. This selected area of Northern Uganda is affected by the consequences of a twenty years civil war. Recommendations on how to implement good operation and maintenance strategies are given.
Ecosan Club (ed.)
Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP), Issue 2. EcoSan Club, Austria
UDDT; business; sanitation; maintenance; operation; Uganda; private sector; Klaesener-Metzner; Muellegger
Ecosan Club (ed.) (2010). Operation and Maintenance - Successful Models for O&M of Sanitation Systems. Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP), Issue 2. EcoSan Club, Austria.