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Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

Library

This library contains publications from various organisations and authors. Please always give credit in citations to the original author, source and copyright holder (you can use the information in “bibliographic information” for each document). We thank everyone who has provided documents so far. Please send further documents for the library to info@susana.org or susana@giz.de.
Note: We only began to count the views and downloads of documents since 28 Oct. 2011.

Software to identify and quantify pathogenic helminth eggs

Various documents on results from research grant

Jiménez Cisneros, B.

2014

Name of lead organization: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico

This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Blanca Jiménez Cisneros is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/2912-software-to-identify-and-quantify-pathogenic-helminth-eggs-university-universidad-nacional-autonoma-de-mexico-unam-mexico#9351 Short description of the project: Name of lead organization: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) The following activities have been performed: a) Integration of a library of helminth eggs images including eight different species, at three viability stages: viable eggs, non-viable eggs, and larval eggs. b) Software development. Its functions involve detecting and labeling all visible objects in an image, using different processes (filtration, equalization, application of algorithms, etc.), and afterwards the classification of each detected objects based on shape (area, perimeter and eccentricity), and texture properties. The image library was needed to train the software on how a specific helminth egg would look like. c) Software first validation. Comparative tests were conducted to determine the difference between software performance, and the results given by the standard identification and quantification technique performed by expert microbiologists. Most of the validation and software improvement have been done simultaneously. The following activities are still ongoing: a) To include additional helminth eggs species to the recognition protocol. b) To finish the lab validation so all the objectives can be achieved. c) To perform international peer-labs test and validation. d) To develop a user friendly software that may be widely distributed. e) To find a proper distribution channel that benefits target users (mostly) in developing countries. Goal(s) Phase II: To distribute this tool worldwide, and ensure mainly that those regions that have limited resources to perform wastewater, sludge, biosolids and excreta quality assessments have easy access to this tool. Objectives (Phase II) a) To increase the sensibility of the identification system when dealing with high solids content water (class III or raw wastewater) and establish the protocol for this case. b) To validate the software to detect and quantify different genera of helminth eggs from samples of different water qualities including wastewater and greywater, and also from sludge, biosolids and excreta samples. c) To include additional helminth eggs species to the recognition protocol. d) To validate the system with international partners. e) To test the system with Mexican partner labs which are certified in the standard technique to start local distribution. f) To obtain a patent for the system. g) To launch a worldwide distribution strategy. h) To develop an easy-to-use platform of the software and the distribution strategy to reach the final users. i) To test the last version and establish the distribution strategy. Start and end date: Phase I: 02/01/2012 to 06/01/2013 Phase II: 02/01/2014 to 01/01/2016 The following documents are available for download: 1 - Journal paper: A Real-Time PCR Method for Quantifying Viable Ascaris Eggs Using the First Internally Transcribed Spacer Region of Ribosomal DNA (2006) 2 - Presentation: Software to identify and quantify pathogenic helminth eggs (2014)

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Agricultural trials demonstrate benefits of urine harvesting and sustainable sanitation

Fact Sheet

Andersson, K

2014

Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Stockholm, Sweden

This fact sheet describes a pilot project in Bind Block, Bihar State, India that set up urine-harvesting facilities and agricultural trials to demonstrate to local farmers and policy-makers the value of treated urine as a fertilizer. The aim of the trials was to help change negative attitudes towards handling urine (and human excreta in general), which can be a major obstacle to the adoption of ecological sanitation (ecosan). Ecosan was deemed the most appropriate form of sustainable sanitation to introduce in Bihar, since it can not only help to reduce the health and environmental impacts of open defecation but can also improve rural livelihoods and nutrition for small-scale farmers through the productive reuse of treated excreta in agriculture. The pilot project activities attracted a lot of interest among local farmers, leaders and agricultural experts, inspiring the wider adoption of both urine harvesting and other forms of ecosan in surrounding communities.

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Sanitation Policy and Practice in Rwanda: Tackling the Disconnect

Policy brief

Ekane, N.

2013

Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Stockholm, Sweden

A coherent national policy on sanitation and hygiene is critical for raising the profile of the sanitation and hygiene sector and for improving access to safe and hygienic sanitation facilities. However, policy alone is not adequate. In Rwanda, like many other developing countries, it remains a mammoth challenge to translate policy on sanitation and hygiene into practice.

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Multi-level sanitation governance: Understanding and overcoming the challenges in the sanitation sector in Sub-Saharan Africa

Working paper

Ekane, N., Nykvist, B., Kjellén, M., Noel, S., Weitz, N.

2014

Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Stockholm, Sweden

This paper uses analysis of multi-level governance, path dependency, and institutional inertia to help understand some of the challenges in the sanitation sector in sub-Saharan Africa, and discusses approaches for overcoming them. The provision of sanitation facilities – a basic necessity for human health, well-being, dignity and development – remains a mammoth challenge for developing countries, in which the vast majority of the 2.5 billion people without improved sanitation facilities reside. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is one of the regions where decent, dignified and functional toilet facilities remain largely inaccessible. Most countries in SSA will not meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for sanitation. There are sharp contradictions in the region between formal and informal sanitation institutions. There is also a disconnect between actors at the macro, meso and micro governance levels. This paper shows how analysis of multi-level governance, path dependency, and institutional inertia can be used to improve understanding of some of the challenges in the sanitation sector in SSA, and discusses approaches that can contribute to improving the sanitation situation in a sustainable way. In addition, the paper asserts that demand-driven strategies and private sector involvement in the sanitation sector is paramount for establishing new sanitation paradigms and socio-technical regimes.

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Linking Relief and Development in the WASH Sector

An overview and contribution to the international debate

Gensch, R., Hansen, R., Ihme, M.

2014

German WASH Network, Berlin, Germany

The publication aims to provide a more in-depth overview of existing definitions, prevalent categorisations and models that are currently being used to describe the relief to development contiguum in the WASH sector and identify existing challenges and opportunities that come along with it. It looks into the main disaster and crisis scenarios and how they affect the WASH sector. It provides definitions for the different assistance types (relief, recovery and development) and the role that WASH plays in each of them. It furthermore summarises main concepts and approaches that are being used and makes an attempt to map out the complex structures and funding mechanisms in both relief and development and identifies existing challenges and opportunities in the transition contiguum. For this paper a wide range of sector professionals have been asked to provide feedback reflecting either their individual and/or organisational views and experiences regarding current challenges, opportunities as well as recommendations for the way forward. The publication should be seen as a current snapshot of the sector at the interface between humanitarian assistance and development cooperation. It intends to foster the mutual understanding of each other’s field of work and provides impulses for fuelling the on-going international debate on how to better link relief, rehabilitation and development in the WASH sector.

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Handbook for plumbers on household connectivity

GIZ - SNUSP

2013

GIZ - Support to theNational Urban Sanitation Policy (SNUSP), New Delhi, India

The Handbook on household connectivity for Plumbers is designed (from Indian context)as an aid for plumbers to take informed decisions in the field. It does not override any state or central government regulations and standards or manufacturer’s installation requirements, all of which must be adhered to at all times. The technical diagrams in this publication reflect the general principle behind the technology or process and may differ in appearance from the actual Process/products. This publication is only a reference guide and readers should obtain appropriate professional advice relevant to their particular circumstances.

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Expansion of the Sanitation Network into the SuSanA Community (Phase 1) and Extension of the SuSanA Discussion Forum (Phase 2)

Various documents on results from research grant

von Muench, E., Rosemarin, A., Spuhler, D.

2014

Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Arno Rosemarin is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/139-information-on-the-bmgf-sanitation-grants-and-webinars/2437-open-discussion-forum-for-sanitation-grantees-of-bill-and-melinda-gates-foundation-phase-2-approved Project Description for Phase 1: The purpose of this project is to transfer ownership and control of the existing Sanitation Network currently managed by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) Water, Sanitation & Health (WSH) Team to the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) and the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) as part of a broader publicly available discussion forum. Primary objectives of this project: • Assume ownership and control of the Sanitation Network • Make the Sanitation Network a public-facing community Primary activities to achieve the objectives: • Transfer the existing content and membership to a dedicated section of the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) online community (open discussion forum), • Transition the management of the Sanitation Network to Stockholm Environment Institute (and its respective partners/sub-contractors), • Open the Sanitation Network to the general public. Specifically, a new distinct category will be created in SuSanA called “Innovative Sanitation Science and Technology in Low-Resource Settings” (Science and Technology Forum) where innovators can discuss the system requirements to make their ideas a reality. As part of the project, technology resources will be uploaded to the SuSanA library and ‘marketed’ in the Forum for discussion. The SuSanA library will be available to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation WSH Team for dissemination of project reports to a wider public audience. Summary of project description for Phase 2: The project is aimed at contributing to the knowledge management and dissemination that the BMGF is carrying out for its sanitation and hygiene projects. These services include launching each project on the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance webpage and Discussion Forum and to provide outreach capacity in order for the project to be seen and understood by targeted individuals and organizations that work within the WSH sector. The SuSanA Discussion Forum and online library is an ideal location for broadcasting information about the sanitation grants of the BMGF and represents an independent environment that is already recognized as a cornerstone in the sanitation community for information dissemination and discussion. The SuSanA online community is an established professional forum and community of practice that has been working with and discussing innovative, sustainable sanitation and hygiene solutions for over seven years, since January 2007, including an open discussion forum since mid 2011 in order to make exchange and discussions more accessible to a wider audience. The activities of the grant are clustered to support the following three main outcomes: 1. Improvements made to the structure, user-friendliness and ease of navigation of the SuSanA Discussion Forum, including basic curator functions for newcomers and non-experts 2. The relevant BMGF grants, as well as closely related projects, introduced on the SuSanA Discussion Forum and scrutinized in a constructive and supported manner (moderated process) 3. The grantees and non-grantees actively engaging with each other in a networked community of practice, where people know each other, using a combination of online and face-to-face means exchanging results and experiences Duration: Phase 1: Nov. 2012 - Apr. 2014 Phase 2: July 2014 - Dec. 2015 Documents available for download below: 1 - "Sustainable Sanitation Alliance members take a closer look at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s sanitation grants" - Authors: Elisabeth von Muench, Dorothee Spuhler, Trevor Surridge, Nelson Ekane, Kim Andersson, Emine Goekce Fidan, Arno Rosemarin, Paper in Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) Journal, Issue 17, EcoSan Club, Austria (2013). 2 - Report about survey results: Questionnaire to Grantees funded by BMGF-WSH (date: 17 March 2014) 3 - Appendix II of final report: Analytics Report covering time period July 2011 until 3 March 2014 (date: 19 March 2014)

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Emergency sanitation project

Progress report

WASTE

2014

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)

The Emergency Sanitation Project (ESP) aims to increase the global understanding of current and future emergency sanitation solutions and to propose new concepts and modular technologies for safe excreta disposal and hygiene in emergency settings that are applicable in a variety of situations and contexts. This report summarizes progress of the ESP’s work funded by the US Office for Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA). The ESP commenced in October 2012 and is a consortium of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), WASTE and Oxfam Great Britain, with IFRC leading the consortium and managing the funds from OFDA.

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Malawi field trials

Emergency sanitation

WASTE

2014

WASTE, The Netherlands

This handout on the treatment of faecal sludge for emergency situations by WASTE Advisers is part of the Emergency Sanitation Project (ESP) and the S(P)EEDKITS Project. The ESP project is funded by the US Office for Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) and is a consortium of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), WASTE and Oxfam GB. S(P)EEDKITS has received funding from the European Unions seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement No 284931. The activities were executed in close cooperation with the Technical University of Delft, Unesco-IHE in Delft, Blantyre City Council (Malawi).

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DEWATS process for decentralised wastewater treatment

Technical lessons from eThekwini Municipality

WRC

2014

Water Research Commision (WRC), Gezina ZA, South Africa

Decentralised wastewater treatment involves treatment and disposal of wastewater close to the source it was generated from. Decentralised Wastewater Treatment System (DEWATS) plants are envisaged in South Africa for high-density areas that are not located close to centralised sewered network. Despite the wide scale implementation of DEWATS plants around the world, there have been few studies that document compliance monitoring of DEWATS plants and / or assess the performance at different hydraulic loadings conditions. A technical evaluation plant designed by the not-for-profit organisation BORDA – Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association - was built by the Ethekwini Municipality for this purpose with the research undertaken by the Pollution Research Group, University of KwaZulu-Natal. EThekwini Municipality, in common with other municipalities in South Africa, are faced with the increasing challenge of providing housing and infrastructure to the population of the city. New housing developments are continuously being established within the urban and peri-urban areas in order to meet the housing backlog, many of which are not able to be connected to the main sewer line. The city therefore looked to the DEWATS approach as a possible sanitation solution for future housing developments. The document looks at the technical lessons learnt from the evaluation of the BORDA DEWATS process under different operating conditions.

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