Technology review of composting toilets - Basic overview of composting toilets (with or without urine diversion)

Berger, W. (2011)

Published in: 2011

Publisher:
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Eschborn, Germany

Author:
Berger, W.


6403 Views
750 Downloads

Content - Summary

Composting toilets are dry toilets which operate without the need for flushing water. They can be used independently of connections to sewers and provide a safe and hygienic sanitation alternative for a range of possible applications. Composting toilets can considerably reduce household water consumption and the costs for wastewater treatment.

This publication explains the design and use of composting toilets which are either manufactured or owner-built. It also briefly describes external composting in a unit which is separate from the toilets (usually located in the garden).

Composting toilets have sometimes also been termed “eco-toilets”. They should not be confused with urine diversion dehydration toilets (UDDTs). In the latter type of toilet, only drying takes place but no biological composting activities occur.

A composting toilets consists of two basic elements: a place to sit or squat and a collecting or composting device. Additionally a ventilation system allows for good aeration of the composting vault, removal of excess moisture and reduces odour. The emptying frequency of the composting vault depends on the capacity of the container, the feeding rate and the composting conditions.

Composting toilets can be designed with or without diversion of urine; urine diversion simplifies the management of the leachate and can be implemented if there is a demand for urine as a fertiliser.
This publication explains the functional principles of composting toilets such as the biological process, bulking material, ventilation, pathogen removal (hygienisation), optimum water content, management and reuse of leachate and compost.

The publication also gives an overview of the operational requirements for composting toilets. Regular maintenance of composting toilets in private or public use is critical to ensure that the facility is operating well. This involves proper cleaning, controlling of technical componets of the facilities and the composting process as well as safe treatment, handling and application of faecal compost and leachate (and urine if it is collected separately).
The main four types of composting toilets are explained in detail:
• Single-vault composting toilets
• Multiple-vault composting toilets
• Mobile bucket or bin toilets followed by composting of the excreta
• Composting toilets with mechanical devices

Ample examples for composting toilets from around the world are included in the publication to show that these types of toilets have a wide range of applications under a variety of circumstances (for wealthy or poor people; for cold, hot, wet or dry climates; for urban or rural settings).
With this publication we aim to make composting toilets more widely known worldwide and to make their potential for providing sustainable sanitation clearer for all those who make decisions on future sanitation systems.

Bibliographic information

Berger, W. (2011). Technology review of composting toilets - Basic overview of composting toilets (with or without urine diversion). Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Eschborn, Germany

Download

Technology Review Composting Toilets

Format: pdf file
Size: 1.26 MB

Share this page on    


Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners currently 315 partners

Sanitation events

SuSanA newsmail

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA news mail is sent out around four times per year and contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

SuSanA partners are welcome to send us news items for inclusion in the SuSanA news mails.

Archived news »

Latest tweets mentioning SuSanA

Tweets mentioning SuSanA »

What's new? We have a Wikipedia Drive for World Toilet Day!

Wikipedia is one of the key global channels for disseminating information about sanitation – so SuSanA is now organizing a major upgrade of the relevant pages. Are you a creative writer, journalist, editor or sanitation expert? Join this important crowd-sourcing event ahead of World Toilet Day (19 November).

More information in press release by SEI »

Jobs

 


close  

 

Resources and publications

Our library has more than 2300 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:

Projects

The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.


Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Regional chapters

Use the map or the search tool to access the most relevant information and knowledge products for your region or country. This includes relevant resources, events, partners or projects.

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs), excreta flow diagrams

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

 


close  

 

Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »


Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Learn more about current SuSanA partners, and sign up to become a partner organization (if your organization is eligible). This way you can show your support for SuSanA's vision and fully utilise the platform's functionalities. See FAQs for more details.

Apply to become a partner »


SuSanA meetings

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member

Login


Forgot your password?

 


close