Working Groups

Within SuSanA several thematic working groups have been established in order to cover a variety of different sanitation aspects and to provide outputs that underline the problems and opportunities of these aspects.

The schematic on the left hand side indicates how the 11 working groups relate to the sanitation chain and to each other. In brackets are the numbers of the respective working groups (click to enlarge).


  • WG 1 - Capacity development

    This working group aims to create a global network to strategically accelerate and influence the capacity development process in the sanitation sector.

  • WG 2 - Finance and economics

    This working group will enrich the weak data base on finance and economics - which play a key role in the selection and sustainability of sanitation systems - and develop a methodology for cost benefit analysis.

  • WG 3 - Renewable energies and climate change

    The objective of this working group is to raise general awareness for the energy potential of the sustainable sanitation approach and its prospective contribution to reduce dependence on imported or fossil energy sources.

  • WG 4 - Sanitation systems, technology options, hygiene and health

    This working group will develop possible options on how to improve sanitation systems especially in developing countries.

  • WG 5 - Food security and productive sanitation systems

    This working group aims to raise awareness for the reuse-oriented sustainable sanitation approach, its prospective contribution to global food security and to promote this approach on a large scale.

  • WG 6 - Cities and planning

    The overall aim of this working group is to develop strategies on how cities can adopt an appropriate planning, implementation, and management process that leads towards more sustainable sanitation solutions.

  • WG 7 - Community, rural and schools (with gender and social aspects)

    7a: Raising general awareness for community and rural sanitation by creating discussion fora and enhancing networking opportunities.
    7b: Developing a fact sheet addressing the specific needs of both men and women in sustainable sanitation so that both accept the sustainable sanitation solutions. 

  • WG 8 - Emergency and reconstruction situations

    The objective of this working group is to combine the knowledge from experts in the fields of sanitation with the knowledge from experts in the field of emergency response and reconstruction.

  • WG 9 - Sanitation as a business and public awareness

    9a: Developing an open-source data base on best practices in integrated social marketing and to establish a formal network of experts in this field.
    9b: Creating global awareness of sustainable sanitation options, and on how to make them more accessible and affordable in the local and global market especially for the poor.

  • WG 10 - Operation and maintenance

    The main task of this working group is to discuss and disseminate relevant information related to best practice examples of operation and maintenance systems for sustainable sanitation by elaborating fact sheets, case studies, posters and other information materials.

  • WG 11 - Groundwater Protection

    The main aim of this working group is to create awareness and formulate recommendations for the protection of groundwater through sustainable sanitation.

  • WG 12 - WASH and Nutrition

    The main aim of this working group is to examine the widely neglected and underestimated adverse nutritional impact of lack of safe WASH particularly in emergency and in chronicle situations.

    WG 13 - Behaviour Change

    This working group will seek to identify, share, and promote new and current methodologies, best practices and cases of behaviour in an inclusive way.

Behaviour Change

Working Group 13 aims at fostering learning about Behaviour Change amongst SuSanA members, promoting collaboration and synergies amongst those working in Behaviour Change, and raising the profile of the importance of addressing Behaviour Change in relation to sanitation goals.


Why focus on Behaviour Change?

Sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene do not only rely on the provision of technology and services, but also on proper usage. Behaviour Change is a critical component of improving access to and practices around water, sanitation, and hygiene. While traditionally, the WASH sector has focused primarily on the delivery of "hardware" solutions, it is becoming increasingly evident that the "software" component of WASH, such as Behaviour Change, must be prioritised. The provision of services alone is not enough to achieve the health outcomes associated with improved WASH, facilities must also be utilised habitually and properly at key times.

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Ways to get involved

Existing and new SuSanA members are welcomed to get involved in the WG. Sign-up for the WG email list to stay updated and to let us know how you can lead or contribute to one of the following areas we plan to focus on:

Knowledge, Research & Learning

  • Share your experiences working on Behaviour Change, both within and outside the WASH sector
  • Present in, or participate in learning events such as webinars or thematic discussions
  • Send us key documents on Behaviour Change so we can build a Behaviour Change section in the SuSanA library assemble a top 10 list of key documents to post on the SuSanA website

Networking, collaboration and partnership

  • Promote the WG13 among your networks
  • Join or organise a WGmeeting online or in person
  • Create links to other WGs, networks, and community of practices
  • Use the forum to engage with other members

Policy and advocacy

  • Advocate for Behaviour Change amongst other SuSanA WGs and within the WASH sector at large

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Working Group Leads

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Global Handwashing Partnership, USA

 

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SEI, Sweden

 

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WaterAid, UK

 

 

Capacity Development

This working group aims to create a global network to strategically accelerate and influence the capacity development process in the sanitation sector.


The backlog in sanitation normally refers to the low coverage of sanitation infrastructure, but is also rooted in the huge lack of capacity at all levels. Thus, capacity development for more sustainable practices in sanitation is urgently needed especially due to the system complexity resulting from the many sectors and authority levels involved. The potential benefits of sustainable sanitation systems in terms of health, improved livelihood, environmental protection, water savings, simplicity, nutrient recovery and energy savings need to be conveyed to all stakeholders.

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Governments need to be aware of the importance and the benefits of sustainable sanitation. So as to show leadership, to plan for and allocate the resources required, and to allow the creation of an enabling environment across sectors - health, infrastructure, water, environment, agriculture, and education. The civil society needs to have the capacities to ensure that sustainable sanitation is put on the local political and development agenda. Local governments, planners and the private sector need technical and managerial capacities in order to implement sustainable sanitation. Furthermore, university curricula need to be developed to build up professional capacity in sustainable sanitation.

This working group aims to create a global network to strategically accelerate and influence the capacity development process in the sanitation sector. The working group has produced a factsheet and a resource DVD for capacity development, with available resources collected from its partner network. The working group supports curricula development initiatives aiming to enhance the ability of academics and professionals across disciplines to contribute to the mainstreaming and up-scaling of sustainable sanitation. An important task of the working group is to collect and update information on training courses and training institutions for sustainable sanitation issues (see the last section in the factsheet for examples and contact details). Furthermore, regional capacity development networks, knowledge nodes, online courses and discussion fora in several languages are supported.

The working group sees itself as a focal point and networking opportunity for anyone or any organisation which seeks to become active in capacity development for sustainable sanitation. Key considerations of the group are to foster knowledge management and knowledge sharing, to use open-source approaches for sharing of course materials, and to optimise the use of the opportunities offered nowadays by the internet for capacity development.

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Working Group Lead

  

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seecon gmbh, Switzerland

 

Working Group Co-Lead

           

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CAWST, Canada

Market Development

Working Group 2 aims to promote understanding and uptake of approaches for market assessment, market based programming and financing mechanisms for sustainable sanitation service delivery.


Sanitation market development is fundamental for increasing sanitation coverage and ensuring that there are services to maintain facilities which are commercially viable. It is a discipline that involves understanding why the market system is not working effectively for the poor and in what ways the market system needs to change in order to serve the poor better. This involves:

  • An understanding of the market system and all market players
  • The identification of market performance failures affecting the poor
  • Root cause analysis of market system under-performance and prioritization of these market failures
  • Design of interventions, partner identification, work plans and M&E

Interventions may include government partnerships, working on demand and supply side financing, product and service design, testing business models and marketing. 

Ideally demand is increased for different products  through marketing, promotional campaigns, and behavior change communications and customers are are willing to pay for a product/ services which address the users’ needs, aspirations and experiences. 

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The working group will focus on exchange of experiences of market landscaping and assessment tools to carry out sanitation market development. It will also be a platform to share experiences of sanitation market development program interventions and learning.

It will incorporate a focus on finance and economics which play a key role in the selection and sustainability of sanitation systems using tools to assess cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit to enable a comparison of different types of sanitation systems to support sanitation planning and programming.

It will also explore and seek to understand the influence of cultures and social behaviours on markets development in relation to sustainable sanitation at scale programming.

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Working Group Leads

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Oxfam GB, United Kingdom

 

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WaterAid, United Kingdom

 

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PSI, United States of America

Renewable energies and climate change

The objective of this working group is to raise general awareness for the energy potential of the sustainable sanitation approach and its prospective contribution to reduce dependence on imported or fossil energy sources.


More than a quarter of the world’s population has no access to electricity and relies on wood, charcoal or biomass materials for their energy needs. It is also recognised that there is a considerable overlap between regional energy scarcity, lack of sanitation and ongoing population growth. A new approach that recognises human excreta and wastewater as an important energy and nutrient resource creates new options to address this issue.

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In this context, integrated sustainable sanitation systems produce either biogas in anaerobic treatment processes or biomass in wastewater-fed short-rotation plantations (here groundwater protection plays an important role) which will provide renewable energy sources to cover basic energy needs. Furthermore, by producing renewable energies and thus avoiding CO2 emissions, these sanitation systems have the potential to alleviate climate change.

The objective of this working group is to raise general awareness for the energy potential of the sustainable sanitation approach and its prospective contribution to reduce dependence on imported or fossil energy sources. The working group has prepared a factsheet "Links between sanitation, climate change and renewable energies" and continues to work on publications that provide practical guidance on how to implement sustainable sanitation solutions for energy production.

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Working Group Leads

Stefan Reuter
BORDA, Germany

 

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GIZ, Germany

 

Sanitation Systems, Hygiene & Health

This working group will develop possible options on how to improve sanitation systems especially in developing countries.


Appropriate technology plays a crucial role for every sanitation system. Together with economic considerations, technology is always one of the main decisive factors for the success of a sanitation project. One of the challenges for improving sanitation in low and middle income countries is to acquire a sound knowledge base of the wide range of sanitation options to assure informed decision making for the most feasible sanitation system.

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This technology should be chosen according to health and hygiene as well as ecological, economical and financial factors and should best fit to the site-specific context. The technology selected should consider the entire sanitation chain, from the point of excreta generation through collection, transportation, treatment and safe use of treated material.

This working group will develop possible options on how to improve sanitation systems especially in developing countries. The working group will continue to discuss and deliver important information related to possible technical options for sanitation systems, to date a factsheet on sanitation systems and technology options has been developed

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Working Group Leads

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Makerere University Kampala, Uganda

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EAWAG/SANDEC, Switzerland

Food security and productive sanitation systems

This working group aims to raise awareness for the reuse-oriented sustainable sanitation approach, its prospective contribution to global food security and to promote this approach on a large scale.


The concept of food security has been perceived by many as one of the fundamental rights of human beings. Unfortunately, the prevailing reality on the ground has foiled this international claim gravely. The FAO estimated in 2006 that 854 million people worldwide are chronically hungry due to extreme poverty and about 2 billion people lack food security intermittently due to varying degrees of poverty. Considering the rising food and fertiliser prices, the increasingly limited global fertiliser and water resources and the continuous growth of the world population, the problem of food insecurity is likely to worsen in the coming decades.

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A large proportion of the population growth will take place in urban areas resulting in a substantial increase in the volume of urban wastewater and a significant increase in urban food demand. Facing the huge number of people to be fed and the existing natural limitations on earth, it appears reasonable and inevitable to approach the food security issue from a perspective of resource preservation and recovery. A paradigm shift in sanitation towards a recycling-oriented approach is highly advisable to bring the limited nutrient resources back to the agricultural fields. This requires a renewed alliance between the agricultural and sanitation sectors, stressing resource recovery as a key requirement for sustainable sanitation concepts.

This working group aims to raise awareness for the reuse-oriented sustainable sanitation approach, its prospective contribution to global food security and to promote this approach on a large scale. The group aims at bringing together all relevant organisations with global competence in agriculture (e.g. soil fertility, irrigation), sustainable sanitation and neighbouring disciplines, which are not yet fully involved in the sanitation discussions. This will help to convey the sustainable sanitation approach to new groups and stakeholders. The main deliverables of the group are a factsheet, flanked by a collection of case studies and a guide for farmers.

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Working Group Leads

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Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Sweden

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Xavier University, Philippines

Cities

The overall aim of this working group is to develop strategies on how cities can adopt an appropriate planning, implementation, and management process that leads towards more sustainable sanitation solutions.


At the beginning of this new millennium, the earth has arrived at a historical point of inflexion. For the first time in history the world is becoming predominantly urban with more people living in cities than in rural areas. Many municipalities are hardly able to keep pace with the speed of the urban growth and face great difficulties to provide sustainable infrastructure to their citizens. This is particularly true for mega-cities in developing countries that are most affected by these rampant urbanisation trends. The character of urban growth is often informal (unplanned) and takes place predominantly in peri-urban areas and the city fringes, resulting in a high number of unserved people, who are exposed to severe health and environmental risks.

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Today’s conventional urban infrastructure planning approaches are top-down, expert-based approaches which are most often disposal or discharge oriented. To combat the worldwide sanitation crisis, it is necessary that more participatory and sustainable approaches reach the cities. These approaches must move beyond sectoral barriers and address ‘integrated coverage’ of sustainable sanitation including basic services such as water supply, excreta and wastewater management as well as rainwater and solid waste management.

The overall aim of this working group will be to develop strategies on how cities can adopt an appropriate planning, implementation, and management process that leads towards more sustainable sanitation solutions. The main outcomes of the working group are a factsheet "Planning for sustainable sanitation", a thematic paper “Sustainable sanitation for cities” and a book “Sustainable sanitation in cities: a framework for action” which also includes a collection of cases and good practice examples for sustainable sanitation in cities.

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Working Group Leads

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Eawag/Sandec, Switzerland

 

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i-San Associates, Uganda

 

 

 

Community, rural and schools (with gender and social aspects)

7a: Raising general awareness for community and rural sanitation by creating discussion fora and enhancing networking opportunities.

7b: Developing a fact sheet addressing the specific needs of both men and women in sustainable sanitation so that both accept the sustainable sanitation solutions.


7a: Experiences around the world have revealed that sanitation initiatives funded by external agencies only, usually do not achieve sustainable sanitation services on a large scale in the longer term, particularly in the rural communities. It is important that communities themselves get deeply involved here and take leadership in their own sanitation projects and programs, including for example school sanitation. This has paramount importance to ensure sustained sanitation services and to link sanitation to communities' livelihood programs.

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Based on these premises, this working group tries to raise general awareness for community and rural sanitation by creating discussion fora and enhancing networking opportunities. The aims of these activities are to encourage research and innovations, and to encourage community members to advocate and engage in policy dialogues. Another important aspect is to strengthen school sanitation within community structures, and to show the link of improved school sanitation with academic performance particularly for education of girls and the rural poor.

7b: Gender mainstreaming is an important tool in any field in order to approach gender equality. In sanitation, gender aspects have to be particularly taken into account, as these are essential for sustainable sanitation and hygiene. Noticeably one of the most observable divides between women and men, especially in developing countries, is in sanitation and hygiene. The provision of hygiene and sanitation are often considered women’s tasks.

Women are promoters, educators and leaders of home and community-based sanitation practices. However, women’s concerns are rarely addressed, as societal barriers continually restrict women’s involvement in decisions regarding toilets, sanitation programmes and projects. And in many societies women’s views – as opposed to those of men - are systematically under-represented in decision-making bodies.

Girls, particularly at and after puberty, do miss school or even drop out of their schools due to the lack of sanitary facilities, and/or the absence of separation of girls’ and boys’ toilets. In these situations girls also stay away from school when they are menstruating.

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Working Group Leads

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WECF, Germany

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UNICEF, Cambodia

Emergency & reconstruction situations

The objective of this working group is to combine the knowledge from experts in the fields of sanitation with the knowledge from experts in the field of emergency response and reconstruction.


In emergency situations following natural or man-made disasters, access to safe water supply and sanitation is of crucial importance for the health of the affected population: People who are affected by disasters and are living in overcrowded relief camps or disaster areas can easily get infected by serious diseases as a result of lacking sanitation or unhygienic conditions. In many cases, pit latrines are then built in a rush, even though those areas may be located in flood-prone areas or areas where the groundwater table is high and the soil is not suitable for the given population density. These difficulties require appropriate planning, design, construction and management of sustainable sanitation in emergency and reconstruction situations.

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The objective of this working group is to combine the knowledge from experts in the fields of sanitation with the knowledge from experts in the field of emergency response and reconstruction. The working group has compiled best practice examples of sustainable sanitation options in a factsheet "Sustainable sanitation for emergencies and reconstruction situations".

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Working Group Leads

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WASTE, The Netherlands

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MALTESER INTERNATIONAL, Germany

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WELTHUNGERHILFE, Zimbabwe

 

Public Awareness, Advocacy and Civil Society Engagement

Sanitation competes with other agendas which are more captivating. The objective of Working Group 9 (formerly "Sanitation as a business and public awareness") is to put sanitation centre-stage for media, the public, and government decision makers and to position its products and services as attractive lifestyle choices.


Discussions of the on-going sanitation crisis have until recently involved only professionals. Decision makers and affluent classes tend to pay little attention to the situation of those who struggle daily with inadequate sanitation. Western media that regularly cover topics such as climate change and water scarcity are reluctant to cover the “taboo topic” of sanitation.  The need to reach the public, the press, and policy makers worldwide is the challenge addressed by Working Group 9.

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Working Group 9 highlights information and messages that mobilise and motivate communities and provides tools for effective advocacy. We follow awareness raising activities, highlight practices that promote sustainable sanitation options and illustrates their use in local and global markets, especially for the poor. Behaviour change and shifting attitudes in favor of sanitation are key components of this advocacy. Encouraging participation in World Toilet Day and sharing information on opportunities to join current advocacy programs or campaigns are among Working Group 9 activities.

We seek to engage communities and local governments from the Global South and the Global North on the scope and scale of the challenges, from the 2.5 billion without toilets to the vulnerability of those served by large, inadequately maintained sewer infrastructure. We support the advocacy efforts of civil society and community-based organizations by working through the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance to provide tools and information.

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Working Group Leads

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WTO, Singapore

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PHLUSH, USA

 

 

Operation, Maintenance and Sustainable Services

The main task of this working group is to discuss and disseminate relevant information related to best practice examples of operation and maintenance systems for sustainable sanitation by elaborating fact sheets, case studies, posters and other information materials.


Many sanitation projects have failed in the past because they focus primarily on the installation of hardware (e.g. toilets, treatment facilities, etc.) only. Key factors for achieving sustainability include both appropriate sanitation hardware but also suitable operation and maintenance,  for all steps in the sanitation chain, i.e. including the collection, transport, treatment and reuse and/or final disposal of the different sanitation products.

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Operation and maintenance of sanitation systems has to be considered already in the planning stage including responsibilities, organisational set-up and financial provisions. Owners of the system need to be aware of the necessity and scope of operation and maintenance work. Extra in-depths training sessions might be needed e.g. for composting staff. Experience has shown that sanitation systems are only operated well if the owner has a benefit from the system (e.g. faecal compost, irrigation water, etc.). Treating wastewater only is not beneficial enough for owners to guarantee sustainable long-term operation of the system. Visits to implementation projects after the project ends, more likely result in successful projects and working systems. However, donors are very reluctant to fund such activities.

The main task of this working group is to discuss and disseminate relevant information related to best practice examples of operation and maintenance systems for sustainable long-term operation of sanitation systems. Basic information on operation and maintenance and best practice examples have been compiled in a factsheet.

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Working Group Leads

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WELTHUNGERHILFE, Zimbabwe

 

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BORDA, Germany

 

Groundwater Protection

The main aim of this working group is to create awareness and formulate recommendations for the protection of groundwater through sustainable sanitation.


More than 2.5 billion people in the world have no access to improved sanitation, which causes an increasing threat to both surface and groundwater resources. Groundwater makes up 97% of the world’s freshwater (excluding inland ice and glaciers) and is a very important source of drinking water. In fact, it accounts for nearly 60% of the world’s drinking water supply, whereas in arid and semi-arid zones this rate may even reach 100%.

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However, groundwater utilisation for drinking water is endangered because of the uncontrolled disposal of human excreta especially in informal settlements, and the absence of sustainable sanitation concepts in exploding mega cities and their peri-urban surroundings. Therefore timely and effective protection of groundwater is of essential importance for keeping the resource clean and safe for future generations. Evidently, sustainable sanitation is a major contribution to the short- and long-term protection of groundwater.

The objective of this working group is to create awareness for the protection of groundwater through sustainable sanitation. A further aim is to formulate recommendations which derive from different kind of events (e.g. workshops, symposium, and conferences) or projects. For this purpose a factsheet has been elaborated and a publication on best practices for groundwater protection is in preparation.

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Working Group Leads

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BGR, Zambia

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KIT, Germany

WASH and Nutrition

12a: Raise awareness for the links and integration means between WASH and Nutrition (including health and other relevant sectors) by providing space for discussion of practitioners from both fields.

12b: Exchange on latest projects, research, guidance, policies, tools and events relevant to WASH and Nutrition and foster networking and collaboration among members to ensure capacity building on WASH & Nutrition integration.

12c: Develop a fact sheet (and keep up to date) on the link between WASH and Nutrition to be used by practitioners and policy makers.


Poor sanitation, hygiene practices and lack of improved water sources expose billion of people, particularly children and vulnerable people, to a wide range of preventable diseases and are major contributors to the world’s morbidity and mortality. According to UNICEF and WHO a staggering 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation and 783 million people have no access to clean water. As a result of this situation, around 4 million people die from waterborne diseases every year. 2.2 million of these deaths are due to diarrhoea and 1.2 million of those are children under five. Malnutrition is the root cause of about 35% of all under-5 child deaths globally. It is estimated that 50% of these cases are associated with diarrhoea or with repeated intestinal worm infections caused by unsafe drinking water and/or poor sanitation and hygiene (WHO, 2008; Cochrane, 2008).

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Diarrhoea is an aggravating factor in malnutrition, as it reduces the body’s capacity to absorb nutrients (leaky bucket syndrome). In addition, malnourished children are more likely to contract diarrhoea, as their systems are already weak, and the effect is cumulative. The likelihood of mortality from diarrhoea when a child is severely underweight is almost 10 times higher than average (Black et al, 2008).  The vicious circle created has a strong negative impact on child growth and development.

In the past years attention has focused a lot on diarrhea, as this is dramatic, measurable and episodic (Chambers, 2010).  However, other faecally-related infections are often neglected and are very widespread such as Ascaris (1.5 billion), hookworm (740 million), Schistosomiasis (200 million) and liverfluke (40 – 70 million).  These are often subclinical and less visible, less measurable, not episodic but continuously debilitating, and less treated. Intestinal nematode infections like Ascaris and hookworm infections claim nutrients for themselves so that they are not available to be taken up by the human body. This issue has an impact on the long-term and causes chronic malnutrition. In addition, faecal bacteria ingested in large quantities by young children living in unhygienic conditions can lead to permanent gut damage which leads to nutrient malabsorption and consequently to undernutrition and stunting – a phenomenon known as environmental enteropathy (Humphrey, 2009). The SuSanA Working Group on WASH and Nutrition will therefore also consider the impact that faecally-related infections other than diarrhea can have on the nutritional status of children and other vulnerable groups.

In the last years a significant body of evidence suggests that poor WASH services also plays a considerable role in the increasing risk of sever acute malnutrition and stunting particularly among children. In the specific case of sever acute malnutrition an NGO examined the relationship between adequacy of water supply and children’s length of stay in a therapeutic feeding program in Niger. This study suggests that therapeutic feeding programs need to assure a good wash environment, in the target children’s villages, if they are to provide optimal care. Consequently, this study highlights the causal link between WASH and Nutrition. The provision of safe water and sanitation coupled with improvements in hygiene (WASH) can hence contribute significantly to this nutritional challenge and to health improvements. Assuring access to safe water and sanitation and to good hygiene practices (e.g. handwashing) should thus be a key integrated element in all humanitarian responses to a nutritional crisis.

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Working Group Leads

 

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CARE

 

Overview of the working groups

Within SuSanA several thematic working groups have been established in order to cover a variety of different sanitation aspects and to provide outputs that underline the problems and opportunities of these aspects.

The schematic on the right hand side indicates how the 13 working groups relate to the sanitation chain and to each other. In brackets are the numbers of the respective working groups (click to enlarge).


  • WG 1 - Capacity development

    This working group aims to create a global network to strategically accelerate and influence the capacity development process in the sanitation sector.

  • WG 2 - Market Development

    This working group aims to promote understanding and uptake of approaches for market assessment, market based programming and financing mechanisms for sustainable sanitation service delivery.

  • WG 3 - Renewable energies and climate change

    The objective of this working group is to raise general awareness for the energy potential of the sustainable sanitation approach and its prospective contribution to reduce dependence on imported or fossil energy sources.

  • WG 4 - Sanitation systems, technology options, hygiene and health

    This working group will develop possible options on how to improve sanitation systems especially in developing countries.

  • WG 5 - Food security and productive sanitation systems

    This working group aims to raise awareness for the reuse-oriented sustainable sanitation approach, its prospective contribution to global food security and to promote this approach on a large scale.

  • WG 6 - Cities

    The overall aim of this working group is to develop strategies on how cities can adopt an appropriate planning, implementation, and management process that leads towards more sustainable sanitation solutions.

  • WG 7 - Community, rural and schools (with gender and social aspects)

    7a: Raising general awareness for community and rural sanitation by creating discussion fora and enhancing networking opportunities.
    7b: Developing a fact sheet addressing the specific needs of both men and women in sustainable sanitation so that both accept the sustainable sanitation solutions. 

  • WG 8 - Emergency and reconstruction situations

    The objective of this working group is to combine the knowledge from experts in the fields of sanitation with the knowledge from experts in the field of emergency response and reconstruction.

  • WG 9 - Public Awareness, Advocacy and Civil Society Engagement

    This working group aims to put sanitaiton centre-stage for media, the public, and government decision makers and to position its products and services as attractive lifestyle choices.

  • WG 10 - Operation and maintenance

    The main task of this working group is to discuss and disseminate relevant information related to best practice examples of operation and maintenance systems for sustainable sanitation by elaborating fact sheets, case studies, posters and other information materials.

  • WG 11 - Groundwater Protection

    The main aim of this working group is to create awareness and formulate recommendations for the protection of groundwater through sustainable sanitation.

  • WG 12 - WASH and Nutrition

    The main aim of this working group is to examine the widely neglected and underestimated adverse nutritional impact of lack of safe WASH particularly in emergency and in chronic situations.

  • WG 13 - Behaviour Change

    This working group will seek to identify, share, and promote new and current methodologies, best practices and cases of behaviour change in an inclusive way.

  •