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This field note provides an overview of the WASH and health financing project that is being implemented in the state of Maharashtra, India – The Ecosystem Approach. The project integrates WASH behaviour change communication (BCC) with rural household microlending programs to drive household water and sanitation access through loans. This initiative aims to establish open defecation free (ODF) …

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This document will act as a road map for functionaries at all levels, especially at the district and GP level. The strategy will be developed in the context of the current situation within the state regarding challenges faced and progress made in the last few years on total sanitation.

SBCC activities are not conducted in isolation and their effectiveness cannot be measured in isolation …

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4 Downloads

The Government of India (GoI) has launched an iniative to strengthen the capacity of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) to ensure the sanitaton gains achieved under the Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) are sustained. The initiative includes ODF status of communites, taking up of an open defecation free plus (ODF Plus) agenda and improving access to safe and secure water supply through the Jal …

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The Government of Kerala became open defecation free in 2016, allowing it to tackle the next challenge on the sanitation cycle - Faecal Sludge management. With funding support and supervision from UNICEF, and technical implementation by PriMove and TBF Environmental Solutions, Wayanad district constructed a Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant (FSTP) that uses earthworms to filter through the waste and …

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55 Downloads

Sakhipur, recognized as municipality, is a town of Sakhipur Upazila which is located about 39 km by road from Tangail and 77 km northwest of Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh. Sakhipur became a Pourashava (municipality) in October 2000. It has an annual income of 6 million Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) over the last three years which makes it an ‘A’ category Pourashava. Sakhipur municipality …

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Over the last five years, the government of Punjab province has taken steps to develop an enabling environment for sustainable and at-scale WASH services. This Field Note outlines the sector policy and strategies, institutional arrangements and sector coordination mechanisms implemented. The arrangements for sector monitoring as well as budgeting, financing and capacity development are presented. …

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Since 2003 Nepal has been actively promoting the Community Led Total Sanitation approach and, from 2005 onwards; the School Led Total Sanitation approach, to promote Open Defecation Free (ODF) behaviours. The Government has put sanitation and hygiene at the forefront of its development agenda through the Nepal Country Plan for the International Year of Sanitation in 2008, the Sanitation and …

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• The ASWA-II programme (2017-2022) is being implemented in eight Terai districts to eliminate open defecation and ensure the sustained use of safely managed water supplies and hygiene by people in targeted districts, especially by women and girls and persons with disability.
• At baseline, 47 out of 100 communities were externally ODF certified. However, there are challenges in sustaining …

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2 Downloads

14.7% of India’s tribal peoples reside in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Historically these tribal groups have been marginalized, socially and economically restricted, and their access to basic services has been disproportionately lower than that of the wider population. To tackle this inequality and demonstrate how a remote, hard to reach tribal area can benefit from sustained WASH …

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3 Downloads

Following the 2010 floods, the Government of Pakistan developed the Pakistan Approach to Total Sanitation (PATS) as a country specific strategy to scale up sanitation programmes, particularly in rural areas to end open defecation. PATS has helped almost 18 million people to construct and use toilets. The last ten million people who need to construct toilets are mostly poor, whereas 176 million …

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6 Downloads

Nepal has made an impressive progress in eliminating open defecation across the country in the last two decades. As a result, the percentage of households using improved (not shared) sanitation facilities in Nepal increased from 15% in 2000 to 62% in 2017, and open defecation rates fell from 67% to 21% over the same period (WHO & UNICEF, 2019). Nepal celebrated gains made towards ending open …

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25 Downloads

The world is alarmingly off-track to deliver sanitation for all by 2030. Despite progress, over half of the world’s population, 4.2 billion people, use sanitation services that leave human waste untreated, threatening human and environmental health. An estimated 673 million people have no toilets at all and practise open defecation, while nearly 698 million school-age children lacked basic …

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38 Downloads

India faces the twin challenges of having the most number of people in the world defecating in the open and also for the burgeoning crisis of untreated fecal waste that is contaminating our surface and ground water creating an imminent health crisis. The latest Swachhta Stats Report1 shows an encouraging 45% rural sanitation coverage by mid 2015 as against the 31% coverage in 2010 Census. Both …

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633 Views
88 Downloads

The Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS) under the Ministry of Jal Shakti, Government of India, recently brought out the strategy and guidelines for SBM Phase II, 2020-21 to 2024-25 to consolidate gains made in SBM Phase I. While the goal in the first phase was eliminating open defecation by constructing toilets, the goals in the second phase are much more ambitious. The outlay for …

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437 Views
18 Downloads

In October 2019, a group of leading organisations in the sanitation and hygiene (S&H) sector – Plan International, SNV, UNICEF, WaterAid, the World Bank and World Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) – published a call to action.1 This stressed renewing commitment and stepping up ambitions and investments to rural S&H and called for evidence-based and adaptive …

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60 Downloads

Menstruation is a natural, normal biological process experienced by all adolescent girls and women, yet it is not spoken about openly causing unnecessary embarrassment and shame. India’s 113 million adolescent girls are particularly vulnerable at the onset of menarche. At this time they need a safe environment that offers protection and guidance to ensure their basic health, well-being and …

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274 Downloads

Mahalaxmi Municipality is one of the historic municipalities of Lalitpur district located in province no.3 of Nepal. The municipality consists of 10 wards with the total population of 112,157 people residing in 70,256 households. The main sources of drinking water in Mahalaxmi Municipality are public taps, household bores and wells. 23% of the population are dependent on sewer system. The most …

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7 Downloads

In Tamil Nadu, currently, a range of behaviour deficits exist along the full cycle of sanitation at the stages of access, containment, emptying, transport, treatment and re-use/disposal. However, communication strategies in the sanitation sector have been largely limited to promoting hygiene behaviours such as handwashing or stopping open defecation by promoting the use of toilets. While these …

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9 Downloads

Achievement of adequate and equitable access to sanitation for all, and an end to open defecation, requires that special attention is given toward disadvantaged groups. It has become apparent that the benefits of conventional rural sanitation programming and service delivery are often not spread equally, and risk leaving disadvantaged groups behind. This issue of Frontiers of CLTS examines the …

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In Tamil Nadu, currently, a range of behaviour deficits exist along the full cycle of sanitation at the stages of access, containment, emptying, transport, treatment and re-use/disposal. However, communication strategies in the sanitation sector have been largely limited to promoting hygiene behaviours such as handwashing or stopping open defecation by promoting the use of toilets. While these …

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1615 Views
91 Downloads

Bheemdatt municipality is located in Kanchanpur District of Sudur Paschim Pradesh, Nepal. The municipality covers an area of 171.63 square kilometres. It is home to 62,050 people as per census 2011. The municipality, which has been declared Open Defecation Free Zone on November 2017, is divided into 19 wards.

The municipality has a stormwater drain in core urban areas but lacks municipal …

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114 Downloads

Lamahi municipality is located in Dang district of province number 5, Nepal. The municipality covers an area of 327 square kilometres along the stretch of East-West highway in the country. The municipality is home to 47,655 people as per census 2011. The municipality is divided into 9 wards. The municipality has declared open defecation free zone in 2014.

The municipality lacks sewer networks …

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91 Downloads

Sanitation has become a critical issue in the cities today. Ever growing population in the cities
has made it difficult to provide quality service to all its citizens. Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM),
the national flagship programme is dedicated to the improvement of sanitation condition in the
country. Ministry is extending technical and financial assistance to ULBs for improving …

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798 Views
17 Downloads

The sustainability of open defecation free (ODF) status in rural areas where toilets frequently collapse is a global concern.
In Tanzania, SNV has developed an innovative approach called Jirani sanitation groups (JSGs). 'Jirani' means neighbour and the approach is based on community support; if a toilet collapses another can be built with the help of neighbours.

This case study presents the …

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833 Views
92 Downloads

Due to the lack of investment in a proper sanitation system in the Philippines - including sewage collection and treatment - close to 20% of the population (approx. 20 million) suffer from inadequate access to sanitation and 9 million rely on unsafe water sources. Additionally, a significant portion of the population is resorting to open defecation (6 million) as a negative coping mechanism, …

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944 Views
79 Downloads

Since 2017, SNV and the Government of Tanzania have been implementing the Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene for All (SSH4A) programme in eight Tanzanian districts. To date, the number of households that use toilets has increased to 90%. In the period March–April 2019, SNV Tanzania undertook a household survey in the eight project districts to identify the 10% of households still practising …

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20 Downloads

In India, the Government’s Smart Cities Mission launched in 2016 seeks to develop 100 cities across the country making them citizen friendly and sustainable. There is a focus on efficiency, improved public services, goods, spaces, and modernisation of pubic services. At the same time, in 2014 the Government of India launched its Swachh Bharat Mission with the objectives of eliminating open …

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208 Downloads

Mandalay is located on the bank of the Irrawaddy on a rather flat and low flood plain, in the centre of Myanmar’s dry-zone. Mandalay is the second largest city of Myanmar. Mandalay experiences increased informal settlements due to rapid expansion.

All sanitation infrastructures in Mandalay are onsite. The SFD graphic shows that 100% of excreta is not properly managed. It consists of 34% of …

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142 Downloads

Sylhet, is a major city in north-eastern Bangladesh and is the capital of Sylhet Division. Sylhet City Corporation (SCC) was established in 2002. It comprises of 27 wards and the total area is 26.50 sq. km with a population of 270,606.

The majority of the population use septic tanks (65%), around 20% uses toilets connected to lined tanks and pits and the rest (15%) use toilets discharging …

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151 Downloads

Gazipur is one of the districts of Dhaka division and Gazipur City Corporation comprises of 57 wards and its total area is 329.53 sq. km. The total population of Gazipur City Corporation is about 2.5 million with a population density of 1,884/sq km.

The majority of the population use septic tanks (98%), and around 2% use toilet with pits. There is no open defecation found in the municipality. …

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171 Downloads

Itahari Sub-Metropolitan is the largest city in Sunsari District located in the Province No.1 of south-eastern Nepal.
The total population was 1,40,517 living in 33,794 households extended in the area of 93.78 square kilometres and the population growth rate is 6.23.

The sub-metropolitan does not have municipal sewer network, thus every household rely on onsite sanitation system. No open …

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1477 Views
122 Downloads

Enugu City is a major commercial and industrial hub in southeastern Nigeria with an estimated population of just over a million people, although this figure increases during the daytime as many residents of the state come to the city to work and trade.

A study estimated that 70 percent of Enugu city’s population live in areas of higher density and lower income in tenement-type housing. …

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1644 Views
261 Downloads

The city of Blantyre is the commercial and financial centre of Malawi and is located around 300 kilometres south-east of the capital, Lilongwe. Blantyre is situated at an altitude of approximately 1,050 meters above the sea level with a population of 1,068,681. Over 65 percent of the city’s population live in unplanned, informal settlements that are expanding quickly. The Blantyre City Council …

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Ramnagar city is situated on the banks of the Ganga River in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The population of the city is 49,132 and its population density is 13,572 persons per sq.km (data from 2011). The slum population is 1,958,
representing 3.98% of the total population.

The existing sewer network covers about 70% of the households. The rest of the city (16%) is either dependent on …

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83 Downloads

Katihar, the district headquarters of Katihar District, is located in the state of Bihar, India. The population of Katihar city is 240,838 with a population density of 9,437 persons per sq.km (Data from 2011). During the post-independence period, commerce showed a phenomenal increase with the associated small scale industrial development, which resulted in the increase of city population.

72 …

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63 Downloads

The city of Gangaghat is located 83 km south west from Lucknow, the state capital. The population of the city is 84,072 (data from 2011) with a population density of 17,122 persons per sq.km.

It was found that there is no sewerage network and the entire population is dependent on Onsite Sanitation Systems (OSS). Septic tank connected to open drain is used by 70% population, 14% practice open …

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1354 Views
110 Downloads

Chunar is situated on the banks of River Ganga and River Jirgo, in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The population of the city is 37,185 (data from 2011).

There is no sewerage network in the city and 71% of the city is dependent on onsite sanitation systems (OSS), out of which 60% are dependent on septic tanks and around 11% on pits. 29% of the population still practices open defecation. …

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Buxar city is situated on the banks of River Ganga in the state of Bihar, India. The population of the city is 102,861, while slum population is 10,161 (data from 2011).

It was observed that there is no sewerage network existing in the city and the equivalent population is dependent on Onsite Sanitation Systems (OSS). There is no treatment facility available for FS generated. Emptied FS from …

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Open defecation (OD), an age-old practice in India, impacts the health of individuals as well as their communities. To tackle the problem, the Government of India launched the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) in 2014, aimed at making the country open-defecation free (ODF) by October 2019 by giving more attention to community-based approaches. However, while such approaches have helped solve the …

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261 Downloads

November 19 is World Toilet Day. Enormous progress has been made in the global effort to provide safe and affordable toilets for the world’s poorest citizens since World Toilet Day was first declared in 2001. Significant strides have been made in “reinventing” toilet designs for low-income, water-short, unsewered urban zones; celebrites such as Bill Gates and Matt Damon have brought this …

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61 Downloads

Ouagadougou is the capital of Burkina Faso and the largest city of the country. It is located in the central region of Burkina Faso and had a population of 2,532,311 in 2015 (INSD, 2015) and projected total population of more than 2.7 million in 2017 (ONEA, 2017). The population density is estimated to be 903 persons per km2 within its municipal council area of 2,805 km2. Additionally, the annual …

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421 Downloads

Mavoko Town is one of the eight sub-counties of Machakos County in Kenya, which is located around 30km southeast of Nairobi. The whole area of Mavoko covers 963 km2 including large rural parts. This SFD focuses on the service area of the local Water Service Provider (WSP) named Mavoko Water and Sewerage Company (MAVWASCO). The WSP serves the urban agglomerations of Mavoko, which are organized in …

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370 Downloads

Lusaka is the capital city of Zambia. Situated in the central part of Zambia on the Central African Plateau it is one of the fastest-developing cities in Southern Africa. Lusaka is both the political and economic centre of Zambia. Lusaka District is located within Lusaka Province, the smallest but most densely populated of the eleven Zambian provinces (CSO, 2014). According to projections by the …

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The SFD graphic and report covers Kakuma town and Kakuma refugee camp. Kakuma town is located in northern Kenya, in the northwestern part of Turkana County approximately 123 km north of the county capital Lodwar and about 100 km east from the border to South Sudan. Kakuma town is located on the eastern bank of Tarach River. In 2018, the town population is around 58,878 inhabitants. Kakuma refugee …

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1354 Views
46 Downloads

Douala is the economic capital of Cameroon. In 2005, Douala had 1,907,479 inhabitants (RGPH, 2010). With a growth rate of 4.7%, the population of the city was estimated to be 3,309,939 inhabitants in 2017. The total area of the city (excluding Douala VI and Wouri River) is about 41,000ha. According to ENSP/L3E (2014), 30 to 40% of the area is occupied by slums. Only 50% of housing in Douala can …

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95 Downloads

Da Lat is located on the Langbiang highland plateau at the northern area of Lam Dong Province. The city consists of 12 wards and 4 communes with a total population of 226,978 people by the end of 2017 (CIPTT, 2018). The maximum population density in the central region is 15,632 people/km2, and only 100 people/km2 in the communes.
Nearly 100% of the population in Da Lat uses onsite sanitation …

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1329 Views
81 Downloads

Buon Ma Thuot is the capital city of Dak Lak province. It is located in the southwest of Dak Lak and borders Dak Nong province in the west and four districts of Dak Lak province in the other directions. It has a population of about 457,000 (Statistic Office of Vietnam, 2016) with a general growth rate of 1.12% per year.
In Buon Ma Thuot, 18% of the population uses offsite sanitation systems. A …

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168 Downloads

Thatta is the main city of Thatta district, in the province of Sindh, Pakistan and has a population of 101,833 (Census, 2017) individuals in 17,998 households. Thatta city is spread over an area of 3823 km² (urban/Rural) and has a population density of 109 people per km².
There are no pit latrines in Thatta, and there is almost no use of septic tanks. 85% of the population uses offsite …

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1227 Views
63 Downloads

Ouahigouya is a mid-sized city located in the northern part of Burkina Faso and is the capital of the Province of Yatenga. Ouahigouya is approximately 180 km from Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. Ouahigouya district is composed of both urban and rural areas. The urban area is 108 km2 and is divided into 15 administrative areas. The rural area is composed of 37 villages. The total …

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729 Downloads

Lahan Municipality is a small commercial town in Siraha District, located in province number 2 in Nepal. It has a population of about 93,000 people and is nearly 350 kilometres east of the capital city Kathmandu. The majority of the population in Lahan (92%) uses onsite sanitation systems. 3% of the residents use toilets discharging directly into open drains, while an estimated 5% practices open …

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180 Downloads

The Cambodian town of Kampong Chhnang is the capital of Kampong Chhnang Province. The Province is located to the northwest of Phnom Penh, the country’s capital and occupies the south-eastern edge of the Tonle Sap Basin. It borders Kampong Thom to the North, Kampong Cham to the East, Kampong Speu to the South and Pursat to the West. According to the Kampong Chhnang Municipal Authority, the …

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144 Downloads

Jatoi city has twenty-two urban wards and is located in the Muzaffargarh district of Southern Punjab. The city is a peri-urban area and most of the settlements are informal. Lack of available land is a common issue. The total population of the city is 159,144, according to the 2017 census report. Most houses have their own latrines, and hand washing facilities range from jerry cans to wash …

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111 Downloads

The responses provided a canvas of problems with sustaining ODF that covers technical, behavioural and physical issues. These issues, persistent since before SBM, must be overcome before India could move onto ODF+, ODF++ and ODF-S. All the issues were related to the ODF-centric approach of SBM that focussed only on toilet coverage.

The technical problems concerned the quality of construction …

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Over half the world’s population now lives in urban areas and a large proportion of them lives without improved sanitation. Efforts to tackle open defecation in rural areas has been led by the Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) movement. But how can the community mobilization techniques of CLTS be adapted to the more complex situations and transient populations in urban areas? How can …

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About the Training Modules

Training Modules on decentralsid sanitation, septage and waste water have been developed, tested and delivered by SCBP during 2016-17, during training of government officials from UP, Rajasthan, MP, Telengana, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh. These Modules have also been used in Training of Trainers(ToTs) of Amrut Nodal Agencies, Academia, …

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0 Downloads

About the Training Modules

Training Modules on decentralsid sanitation, septage and waste water have been developed, tested and delivered by SCBP during 2016-17, during training of government officials from UP, Rajasthan, MP, Telengana, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh. These Modules have also been used in Training of Trainers(ToTs) of Amrut Nodal Agencies, Academia, …

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2583 Views
49 Downloads

The Measurement, Evidence, and Dissemination, for Scale (MEDS) initiative was created by merging the Measurement, Learning and Evaluation (MLE) initiative with the Building Demand for Sanitation (BDS) initiative at the end of 2015. The 2017 MEDS Convening was the 2nd convening under MEDS but the 6th annual meeting for many of the participants, formally convening under the BDS portfolio.

In …

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Since Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is our key intervention for sanitation and hygiene promotion in Malawi, it provides an excellent opportunity to facilitate hand washing behavior change. However, up till now, the “triggering tools” for achieving HWWS behavior change from CLTS have not been well known by implementers in Malawi. The purpose of this document is to outline several …

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The heart of the program is about “triggering” or “igniting” communities to change their hygiene and sanitation habits, namely by constructing and using latrines instead of defecating in the open. In Ethiopia, CLTS was the precursor to CLTSH, a modified version that has an added hygiene component. As with its predecessor, CLTSH functions without subsidies and has as its primary goal the …

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This guideline is a ready reckoner for Urban Local Bodies of Gujarat to achieve Open Defecation Free cities/towns. The document has been prepared based on the National guidelines of Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban).
The document highlights strategies for achieving OD free settlements include but are not limited to:
1. Ensuring adequacy of toilets –individual and public toilets and Effective …

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113 Downloads

The Handbook is an initiative of Sanitation Capacity Building Platform (SCBP) to build capacities in Feacal Sludge and Septage Management (FSSM) for officials of urban local bodies (ULB), para state technical agencies, administrators and professionals from the private sector and Non-governmental Organizations. It is meant to be freely used by any can organization (public or private), national and …

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Sanitation has been on the forefront of development agenda in India. The Government of India's Swachh Bharat Mission aims to make the whole country Open Defecation Free by 2019. How cities become ODF and what can other cities learn from ODF cities? This was the aim in organising a two day workshop for city officials from Rajasthan. The workshop also included a visit to an ODF city. It was …

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13 Downloads

Unilever convened a group of like-minded companies, NGO’s and research professionals, with expertise in sanitation and marketing and a desire to take immediate action to address this issue.

The focus has been on households having access to their own toilet, either inside or outside the home. In particular the low LSM consumer, whose basic needs for food & shelter are met and who have some …

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The video is a documentary about the Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach, an innovative methodology for mobilising communities to completely eliminate open defecation and take their own action to become open defecation free. It shows projects in Bangladesh and interviews with one of its pioneers Dr. Kamal Kar.

It has been produced 2008 within the BBC earth report series on …

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The SuSanA India Chapter seminar took place in Pune, 18 November 2017 in the course of the SANIVATION’17 event. It was organized by the Ecosan Services Foundation, the India Sanitation Coalition and the SuSanA secretariat. The context of the topic was that Maharashtra State Government has recently declared all cities to be open defecation-free (ODF).
The seminar successfully connected …

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Safe disposal of children’s feces is as essential as that of adults’ feces. The Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) tracks progress toward the Millennium Development Goal 7 target to halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. The JMP standardized definition for an improved sanitation facility is …

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853 Views
13 Downloads

The technical performance and user acceptance of a novel on-site sanitation system based on vermifiltration was tested for over 12 months in rural India. Ten households (mean household size = 5.6 people) who had previously practised open defecation trialled a pour flush toilet linked to a vermifilter, together known as a ‘Tiger Toilet’. Technical parameters which were monitored over this …

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178 Downloads

Patna, the state capital of Bihar, is situated on the southern bank of Ganga River. The city is surrounded by two other rivers on two other sides: Sone River and Pun-Pun River.
Patna is the second largest city in eastern India after Kolkata. For the preparation of the SFD, the territory of Patna Municipal Corporation (PMC) is selected.
The total population of the city is 1.68 million with …

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9 Downloads

Container-based sanitation (CBS) – in which wastes are captured in sealable containers that are then transported to treatment facilities – is an alternative sanitation option in urban areas where on-site sanitation and sewerage are infeasible. This paper presents the results of a pilot household CBS service in Cap Haitien, Haiti. We quantify the excreta generated weekly in a dense urban slum, …

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307 Downloads

Tikapur is a municipality of over 60,000 inhabitants (56,136, 2011 census), located on the right bank of the Karnali river in the Terai district of Kailali, far western region. It is a “new town” and was founded about 50 years ago and is composed of four main different socio-economic settings. There is a well-planned core-urban area in Ward 9, which is based on a master plan prepared in 1972, …

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Elimination of open defecation is one of the key components of the Swachh Andhra Mission. In order to achieve open defecation free towns, ensuring adequacy through construction of toilets –individual, community and public toilets and effective operations and maintenance is the strategic approach which the scheme emphasizes. Individual Household Toilet (IHHT) is a major component of the SBM. …

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1982 Views
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The SuSanA India Chapter seminar about the topic towards ODF+ Urban Maharashtra was held in Pune, India on 18 November 2017 during the event SANIVATION’17 around World Toilet Day. Please also find the final report of the conference below.

The context of the seminar was that Maharashtra State Government has recently declared all cities to be open defecation free (ODF). The seminar encouraged …

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58 Downloads

Bansberia is a town in the Hooghly district of West Bengal, India. Bansberia Municipality was the nerve center of “Saptagram”, a port city, famous for its inland and foreign trades with Europe since 17th Century. Bansberia has a population of 1,03,799. The population density of the city is 11,445 persons per sq.km, which is high in comparison to the population density of West Bengal, i.e. …

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Santa Cruz de la Serria Metropolitan Area (SCMA) is the second largest urban area in Bolivia. It is a major economic centre in Bolivia. There are approximately 1.9 million inhabitants in SCMA. The city is considered to be one of the fastest growing cities in the world. Santa Cruz is located in eastern Bolivia on the Pirai Riva at an altitude of 416 m above sea level. SCMA has a tropical savanna …

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The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) was formed in 2007 with the aim of promoting and lobbying for sustainability in sanitation in the context of the Millennium Development Goals. Over the last 10 years SuSanA has made a significant contribution to sector development, with sector actors now focussing increasingly on the sustainability of sanitation services in a variety of ways. …

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53 Downloads

With the implementation of the SuSanA Indian Chapter, disucssions around Sanitation in India are held in a regular period on the SuSanA Forum.
In India, Swachh Bharat Mission has been launched 2nd October 2014 to eradicate open defecation and implement behaviour change across India´s society. The following is a synthesis of the posts published during the discussion about the challenges and …

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With the implementation of the SuSanA Indian Chapter, this TDS was the first with focus on sanitation in India. Since it was launched 2nd October, 2014, Swacch Bharat Mission (SBM) has been one of the Indian government’s flagship programmes to eradicate open defecation and implement behaviour change across India´s society.

The first thematic online discussion of the India Sanitation …

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This study provides an assessment of the global costs of meeting the WASH-related targets of SDG 6. The targets assessed include achieving universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all (target 6.1), achieving access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all, and ending open defecation (target 6.2). The estimates include 140 countries, or 85% of the …

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15 Downloads

Many low-income countries face the hefty challenge of increasing sanitation coverage, in both rural and urban areas, which demand di erent solutions. In response, governments, with support from international agencies, bilateral donors and non-government organisations, are deploying a range of programmes and policies to accelerate progress towards the new global goals. Community-led total …

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39 Downloads

This paper presents the general sanitation practices by the traders in a major market in Kuje located in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja and our efforts in reorientating the market stakeholders towards the provision and use of a new dry sanitation toilet complex. The market is known for its diversity in Nigerian ethnicity, culture and the variety of goods and services. A novel toilet …

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4253 Views
251 Downloads

Bure is located 400 km north of the capital Addis Ababa and 148 km south west of Bahir Dar and is within the Amhara State, Western Gojjam Administrative Zone of Ethiopia. It has a total urban population of 27,386 people. The number of Open Defecation is only 2%. Nevertheless, none of the city's excreta is delivered to a treatment plant. Therefore, only 33% of the city's excreta is safely managed, …

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376 Downloads

Bishoftu is located in the state of Oromia, Ethiopia, approximately 47 km south east of Addis Ababa. Its topography is undulating and characterized by flat land on the north and east parts of the city, locked by several lakes, while the south is dominated by hills (BCP, 2015). The geographical area of the city is about 15,273 ha, and it lies at an altitude in the range of 1900 m. to 1995 m. The …

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449 Downloads

Axum is located in the Tigray region in the northern tip of the Ethiopian Plateau. The town is 1,041km away from the capital, Addis Ababa, with a population of 46,887. The number of Open Defecation is only 4%. Nevertheless, none of the city's excreta is delivered to a treatment plant. Therefore, only 22% of the city's excreta is safely managed, while 78% is unsafely managed.

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44 Downloads

Policies are considered critical for creating an enabling environment for improving access to sanitation and hygiene services. There are, however, certain requirements that policies must meet for them to be coherent and supportive. This paper presents a comparative assessment of the sanitation policy and institutional frameworks in Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania based on a …

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14 Downloads

Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory approach to addressing open defecation that has demonstrated success in previous studies, yet there is no research on how implementation arrangements and context change effectiveness. We used a quasi-experimental study design to compare two interventions in Ethiopia: conventional CLTS in which health workers and local leaders provided …

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4 Downloads

This assessment finds that the policies in Rwanda, Uganda, and Tanzania meet many of the recommended criteria, but are still lacking key aspects to adequately cater for sustainability of services and functionality of facilities. Further, policies should reflect the needs and preferences of people. This is usually not the case because policies are very ambitious and hard to fully translate to …

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27 Downloads

The partial or total non-use of toilets, with some or all in a household defecating in the open, is a growing concern. Although all households may have a toilet, communities cannot remain open defecation free unless they are always used by everyone. This is not just an issue of maintenance and accessibility but also of social norms, mind-sets, and cultural preferences. The problem is widespread …

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48 Downloads

The Open Defecation Free (ODF) Malawi 2015 Strategy and National Hand Washing Campaign have been contributing to an increased focus on handwashing with soap (HWWS) in Malawi.1 This is a very positive development!

Some studies estimate that washing hands with soap can reduce diarrhoeal disease rates by up to 50 per cent and respiratory disease rates by up to 25 per cent. This makes handwashing …

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In this working paper, we draw on basic scientific findings from psychology, cognitive science, and behavioral economics to propose a framework of 8 System 1 Principles to support the initiation and maintenance of OD behavior change. In doing so, we build from the general framework advanced in the World Bank Group’s (2015) World Development Report: Mind, Society, and Behavior, which emphasized …

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52 Downloads

Residents of informal settlements in developing countries are faced with various challenges, including a lack of household sanitation facilities, which leads to use of alternative methods such as open defecation. The lack of household sanitation facilities and consequent use of improper methods necessitated the introduction of communal sanitation facilities in informal settlements as a way of …

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265 Downloads

During the immediate phase of an emergency in an urban context, the implementation of sanitation programmes takes a long time to provide suitable and sufficient facilities for the affected population.

While the emergency response for drinking water programmes has been improved with the design of standardised, rapid deployment kits, sanitation programmes in urban areas are limited to very few …

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333 Downloads

Sixty-four percent of Bikaner’s city (population of 644,406 people) depends on offsite systems, 31% depends on onsite sanitation systems (OSS), mainly septic tanks, while 5% of population practices open defecation. The city has three Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) where 41% of the waste water is treated but there are not treatment facilities for septage. One private emptier is responsible for …

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103 Downloads

The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council Community of Practice on Sanitation and Hygiene in Developing Countries (WSSCC CoP) and the global Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) came together in late September 2015 to hold a joint three-week thematic discussion on sanitation and hygiene behaviour change programming and sustainability. It was the first time the two networks had …

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111 Downloads

The dominant nutrition discourse concerns access to adequate food and its quality. It now includes food security, food rights and justice, governance and agriculture. Despite many initiatives to assure food access, and growing economies, high levels of undernutrition persist in much of Asia. It is increasingly suggested that much of this ‘Asian enigma’ can now be explained by open defecation …

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505 Downloads

WSP’s Scaling Up Rural Sanitation is working with governments and the local private sector to develop the knowledge needed to scale up rural sanitation for the poor. The programmatic approach combines Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), behaviour change communication, and sanitation marketing to generate sanitation demand and build up the supply of sanitation products and services at scale. …

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136 Downloads

The article by Fiona Budge asserts that ‘Shit’ is still a highly sensitive topic across all cultures, which has led to diverse problems establishing programmes that aim to prevent Open Defecation. On basis of a case study in Nepal and theories of disgust this publication reflects on the reasons for the taboo state of the topic and possible solutions.

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42 Downloads

There are today more people without access to adequate sanitation than in 2000, despite the commitment included in the MDGs to halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to basic sanitation. This has many consequences for the well-being and potential of many people: sanitation related diseases account for about 800,000 children death per year; open defecation leads to …

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This library entry contains documents for a grant that Maria Laura Alzua is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Goal:
to improve the evidence of the effectiveness of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs on health and behavioral outcomes

Purpose (copied from Trial description: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01900912):

Behavioral change is a …

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92 Downloads

This report covers the main findings of the impact evaluation conducted of a communityled total sanitation (CLTS) campaign implemented by the government of Mali (Direction Nationale de l’Assainissement) with the support of UNICEF. We conducted a clusterrandomized controlled trial among 121 villages randomly selected from the district of Koulikoro in order to evaluate health and non-health …

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At the 4thAfrican Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene (AfricaSan), convened by the Government of Senegal with support from the African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW) in Dakar, Senegal, May 25-27, 2015, the Ministers and Heads of Delegations responsible for sanitation and hygiene in Africa, together with senior civil servants, academics, civil society, development partners and the private …

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This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Marc Deshusses is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Further Information is also available on the discussion Forum (see link below).

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Based on the results, the following recommendations to any organization considering a large-scale, India-wide sample survey to monitor open defecation, latrine use, and progress towards the Swatchh Bharat Mission in rural India are made:

1. Ask about open defecation as part of an existing survey that already includes a household roster.

2. Ask about open defecation and latrine use …

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This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Sangita Vyas is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Short description of the project:

Open defecation imposes enormous costs on children’s health and human capital, and is exceptionally widespread in India. We believe that there is convincing evidence of the benefits for health and human …

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9750 Views
1362 Downloads

This case study describes a combined waste management and sustainable sanitation project conducted by GIZ in Lokossa, Mono region, Benin. The project has been developed by the GIZ advisory project “Concepts for Sustainable Waste Management” in cooperation with the GIZ Water and Sanitation Programme (PEP) of Benin. Local partners include the municipality of Lokossa, the NGOs Protos, DCAM …

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3338 Views
5 Downloads

This fact sheet describes the setting up of a new non-profit water- and nutrient-testing laboratory in Patna, India, to support a set of pilot projects promoting sustainable sanitation solutions in the state of Bihar and provide a valuable and unique service to the public.

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30 Downloads

This fact sheet describes a pilot project that introduced enclosed long-term composting (ELTC) technology for the first time in the Indian context.

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This fact sheet describes a pilot project that supported construction of household ecological sanitation (ecosan) toilets specially adapted to be resistant to seasonal flooding, in a poor rural community in India's Bihar State.

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702 Downloads

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