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Sanitation Library

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7 Downloads

The Amathole District Municipality (ADM) is in the central part of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The Amathole DM covers 200 km of coastline of the Indian Ocean in the south to the Amathole Mountains in the north. The DM jurisdiction includes large parts of the previously disadvantaged Ciskei and Transkei homelands. The land of the DM is 21,229 square kilometres (km2) (Amathole District …

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The uMshwathi Local Municipality is the largest of the six smaller local municipalities in the uMgungundlovu District Municipality. The local municipality is in an area that was largely under the control of tribal authorities until very recently. There are towns, however, that were built by German immigrants some 150 years ago. The land area of uMshwati LM is approximately 1,866 square kilometres …

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159 Views
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After decades promoting sanitation in low and middle-income countries, several countries and the global sanitation community have come to realise that it is time to rethink the approach to accelerating access to quality services. Since 2000, the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has consistently reported that the share of the population in low and …

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293 Views
26 Downloads

As per the 2011 census, the share of urban population is 31.2% as against 28% of 2001 census of the total
population of the country which is expected to be 50% by 2050. This increase in population has created a
significantly enhanced demand on urban sanitation, inter alia. As per the 2011 Census, 81.4% households
have toilet facilities within their premises. Out of this, 32.7% households have …

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188 Views
7 Downloads

It is known that eradicating open defecation is only half the battle. For improving sanitation, faecal sludge and wastewater also needs to be safely managed. It is in this context that Government of India, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) issued a National Faecal Sludge and Septage Management (FSSM) Policy3 . It recommends regular desludging of septic tanks through a systematic …

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174 Views
3 Downloads

Realizing its commitment to providing universal access to sanitation, the Government of Indonesia aims to shift from open defecation free into safely managed sanitation as the national plan for sanitation is targeting to provide 15% of the population with access to safely managed sanitation. Based on the Statistics Bureau, in 2019, there are 77.44% households that have access to sanitation in …

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194 Views
2 Downloads

Through Community Based Total Sanitation (known in Bahasa as Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyaralat or STBM), many rural communities in Aceh province in Indonesia have been supported to eliminate Open Defecation (OD). However, achieving Open Defecation Free (ODF) still remains a challenge for many residents. This technical paper presents the results of a study on open defecation practices in rural …

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228 Views
2 Downloads

Improvements to sanitation and hygiene are known to reduce the transmission of the poliovirus. This field note reports the experience of implementing Afghan Context Community Led Total Sanitation (AC-CLTS) in an urban context within an integrated polio eradication project targeted to high-risk polio districts. The Ministry of Public Health, provincial Department of Public Health and UNICEF …

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322 Views
1 Downloads

This evaluation examines a broad national programme of ‘community-led total sanitation’ (CLTS) style sanitation interventions conducted in Timor-Leste by the government, NGOs and multi-lateral and bi-lateral stakeholders from 2012 to 2020. It was commissioned by the Government of Timor-Leste (GoTL) Ministry of Health (MoH) in collaboration with UNICEF Timor-Leste. The evaluation was conducted …

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198 Views
5 Downloads

Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS) aim to achieve 100 per cent open defecation free (ODF) communities through affordable, appropriate technology and behaviour change. Some of the key principles guiding CATS are:
• An emphasis on the sustained use of sanitation facilities by every community member, rather than simply the construction of infrastructure.
• The safe disposal of …

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161 Views
3 Downloads

Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is a revolutionary idea and an inspiring practice. The enthusiasm of its many adherents in government and civil society is understandable. This desk review examines the refereed and gray literature on CLTS, with the central objective of assessing the knowledge base on best practices and identifying evidence gaps to inform the project’s research agenda (to …

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There has been an interesting debate going on about the elements of shame, fear and disgust used during CLTS triggering session. The debate has been between those who believe that the element of shame as applied during a CLTS trigger is unethical as it amounts to degrading and embarrassing the community, and those who believe that the element of shame is actually positive, and that it indeed …

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143 Views
6 Downloads

World Health Organization data on the burden of disease shows that approximately 3.1% of deaths (1.7 million) and 3.7% (54.2 million) of disability-adjusted-life-years (DALYs) worldwide are attributable to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene. In Africa and developing countries in South East Asia 4-8% of all disease burdens are attributable to poor hygiene and sanitation. Over 99.8% of all deaths …

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224 Views
1 Downloads

Most countries in Africa will fall short of meeting the MDG targets for the provision of water and sanitation due to lack of financial and institutional capacity (WSP-Africa, 2006). Although safe sanitation has been found to be the most effective single intervention in reducing diarrhoea (Esrey, et al.1991), this does not necessarily mean building latrines, which can become a fly breeding ground …

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178 Views
3 Downloads

Since 2000 a number of community-driven sanitation approaches have emerged that counter a historical trend to subsidise the provision of latrines to the poor. This study reports on a set of findings and conclusions concerning the effectiveness and sustainability of two such approaches operating in Zimbabwe, the community health club (CHC) approach and community-led total sanitation (CLTS). …

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180 Views
1 Downloads

Evidence and comments suggest that CLTS has been successful in some cases in Africa, however it is difficult to find strong data to support this.
Claims to have achieved Open Defecation Free (ODF) status have often been exaggerated and estimates of numbers of ODF communities inflated. Verification systems need to be improved. Another problem is that ODF is an absolute condition, important as a …

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185 Views
3 Downloads

During more than 20 years of civil conflict in both Somalia and South Sudan, sanitation interventions were mostly limited to construction of emergency latrines for affected populations or education on sanitation and hygiene, using the Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) approach, followed by fully subsidised latrine programmes for selected households.
There is little …

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403 Views
21 Downloads

Globally, 4.2 billion people do not have access to safe sanitation services, and approximately 3 billion lack basic handwashing facilities. Even in 2021, almost 700 million people still practise open defecation and nearly 400 million children attend schools with no sanitation facilities at all.

The large financing gap has been identified as one of the greatest barriers to achieving the water, …

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1012 Views
16 Downloads

Tarkastad (GPS coordinates: 32.0048 S, 26.2717 E) is a primary development node and serves as the local administrative centre for Enoch Mgijima LM (Enoch Mgijima Local Municipality, 2017). Tarkastad used to form part of the Tsolwana Municipality which was subsequently absorbed as part of the Enoch Mgijima LM. Tarkastad initially developed as a farming area and later as a church centre and a …

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725 Views
32 Downloads

This SFD Intermediate Report was developed for Ulundi Local Municipality (LM). The Ulundi LM is categorised as a Category B Municipality within the Zululand District Municipality (ZDM), KwaZulu Natal Province. The responsibility of planning and development, including the supply of water and sanitation services, lies with ZDM for Ulundi LM. The Ulundi LM is approximately 3,250 square kilometres …

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102 Downloads

Lama municipality is a hill town of Bandarban, which is 366 km away from Dhaka city. It is surrounded by hills and River Matamuhuri. It is connected with road and water. Lama is a sub-division town (Upazila) in Bangladesh administrative map. Before, it was declared a municipality in 2001. Lama is one of the 330 municipalities in the country.

According to the population census in 2011 by the …

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In September 2019, the Government of Nepal declared the country ‘open defecation free’ (ODF). Leading up to this milestone, the Government of Nepal and other sector partners focused on the challenging Terai plains - the ‘last mile’ of Nepal’s Sanitation Campaign. This Case Study documents the key success factors from WSSCC's Global Sanitation Fund programme in Nepal, executed by …

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621 Views
5 Downloads

This field note provides an overview of the WASH and health financing project that is being implemented in the state of Maharashtra, India – The Ecosystem Approach. The project integrates WASH behaviour change communication (BCC) with rural household microlending programs to drive household water and sanitation access through loans. This initiative aims to establish open defecation free (ODF) …

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440 Views
9 Downloads

This document will act as a road map for functionaries at all levels, especially at the district and GP level. The strategy will be developed in the context of the current situation within the state regarding challenges faced and progress made in the last few years on total sanitation.

SBCC activities are not conducted in isolation and their effectiveness cannot be measured in isolation …

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384 Views
8 Downloads

The Government of India (GoI) has launched an iniative to strengthen the capacity of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) to ensure the sanitaton gains achieved under the Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) are sustained. The initiative includes ODF status of communites, taking up of an open defecation free plus (ODF Plus) agenda and improving access to safe and secure water supply through the Jal …

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The Government of Kerala became open defecation free in 2016, allowing it to tackle the next challenge on the sanitation cycle - Faecal Sludge management. With funding support and supervision from UNICEF, and technical implementation by PriMove and TBF Environmental Solutions, Wayanad district constructed a Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant (FSTP) that uses earthworms to filter through the waste and …

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100 Downloads

Sakhipur, recognized as municipality, is a town of Sakhipur Upazila which is located about 39 km by road from Tangail and 77 km northwest of Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh. Sakhipur became a Pourashava (municipality) in October 2000. It has an annual income of 6 million Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) over the last three years which makes it an ‘A’ category Pourashava. Sakhipur municipality …

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495 Views
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Over the last five years, the government of Punjab province has taken steps to develop an enabling environment for sustainable and at-scale WASH services. This Field Note outlines the sector policy and strategies, institutional arrangements and sector coordination mechanisms implemented. The arrangements for sector monitoring as well as budgeting, financing and capacity development are presented. …

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Since 2003 Nepal has been actively promoting the Community Led Total Sanitation approach and, from 2005 onwards; the School Led Total Sanitation approach, to promote Open Defecation Free (ODF) behaviours. The Government has put sanitation and hygiene at the forefront of its development agenda through the Nepal Country Plan for the International Year of Sanitation in 2008, the Sanitation and …

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992 Views
24 Downloads

• The ASWA-II programme (2017-2022) is being implemented in eight Terai districts to eliminate open defecation and ensure the sustained use of safely managed water supplies and hygiene by people in targeted districts, especially by women and girls and persons with disability.
• At baseline, 47 out of 100 communities were externally ODF certified. However, there are challenges in sustaining …

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545 Views
4 Downloads

14.7% of India’s tribal peoples reside in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Historically these tribal groups have been marginalized, socially and economically restricted, and their access to basic services has been disproportionately lower than that of the wider population. To tackle this inequality and demonstrate how a remote, hard to reach tribal area can benefit from sustained WASH …

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668 Views
3 Downloads

Following the 2010 floods, the Government of Pakistan developed the Pakistan Approach to Total Sanitation (PATS) as a country specific strategy to scale up sanitation programmes, particularly in rural areas to end open defecation. PATS has helped almost 18 million people to construct and use toilets. The last ten million people who need to construct toilets are mostly poor, whereas 176 million …

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617 Views
8 Downloads

Nepal has made an impressive progress in eliminating open defecation across the country in the last two decades. As a result, the percentage of households using improved (not shared) sanitation facilities in Nepal increased from 15% in 2000 to 62% in 2017, and open defecation rates fell from 67% to 21% over the same period (WHO & UNICEF, 2019). Nepal celebrated gains made towards ending open …

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1162 Views
27 Downloads

The world is alarmingly off-track to deliver sanitation for all by 2030. Despite progress, over half of the world’s population, 4.2 billion people, use sanitation services that leave human waste untreated, threatening human and environmental health. An estimated 673 million people have no toilets at all and practise open defecation, while nearly 698 million school-age children lacked basic …

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743 Views
43 Downloads

India faces the twin challenges of having the most number of people in the world defecating in the open and also for the burgeoning crisis of untreated fecal waste that is contaminating our surface and ground water creating an imminent health crisis. The latest Swachhta Stats Report1 shows an encouraging 45% rural sanitation coverage by mid 2015 as against the 31% coverage in 2010 Census. Both …

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1859 Views
135 Downloads

The Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS) under the Ministry of Jal Shakti, Government of India, recently brought out the strategy and guidelines for SBM Phase II, 2020-21 to 2024-25 to consolidate gains made in SBM Phase I. While the goal in the first phase was eliminating open defecation by constructing toilets, the goals in the second phase are much more ambitious. The outlay for …

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743 Views
22 Downloads

In October 2019, a group of leading organisations in the sanitation and hygiene (S&H) sector – Plan International, SNV, UNICEF, WaterAid, the World Bank and World Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) – published a call to action.1 This stressed renewing commitment and stepping up ambitions and investments to rural S&H and called for evidence-based and adaptive …

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271 Downloads

Menstruation is a natural, normal biological process experienced by all adolescent girls and women, yet it is not spoken about openly causing unnecessary embarrassment and shame. India’s 113 million adolescent girls are particularly vulnerable at the onset of menarche. At this time they need a safe environment that offers protection and guidance to ensure their basic health, well-being and …

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577 Downloads

Mahalaxmi Municipality is one of the historic municipalities of Lalitpur district located in province no.3 of Nepal. The municipality consists of 10 wards with the total population of 112,157 people residing in 70,256 households. The main sources of drinking water in Mahalaxmi Municipality are public taps, household bores and wells. 23% of the population are dependent on sewer system. The most …

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1067 Views
10 Downloads

In Tamil Nadu, currently, a range of behaviour deficits exist along the full cycle of sanitation at the stages of access, containment, emptying, transport, treatment and re-use/disposal. However, communication strategies in the sanitation sector have been largely limited to promoting hygiene behaviours such as handwashing or stopping open defecation by promoting the use of toilets. While these …

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976 Views
15 Downloads

Achievement of adequate and equitable access to sanitation for all, and an end to open defecation, requires that special attention is given toward disadvantaged groups. It has become apparent that the benefits of conventional rural sanitation programming and service delivery are often not spread equally, and risk leaving disadvantaged groups behind. This issue of Frontiers of CLTS examines the …

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820 Views
7 Downloads

In Tamil Nadu, currently, a range of behaviour deficits exist along the full cycle of sanitation at the stages of access, containment, emptying, transport, treatment and re-use/disposal. However, communication strategies in the sanitation sector have been largely limited to promoting hygiene behaviours such as handwashing or stopping open defecation by promoting the use of toilets. While these …

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2398 Views
129 Downloads

Bheemdatt municipality is located in Kanchanpur District of Sudur Paschim Pradesh, Nepal. The municipality covers an area of 171.63 square kilometres. It is home to 62,050 people as per census 2011. The municipality, which has been declared Open Defecation Free Zone on November 2017, is divided into 19 wards.

The municipality has a stormwater drain in core urban areas but lacks municipal …

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2375 Views
163 Downloads

Lamahi municipality is located in Dang district of province number 5, Nepal. The municipality covers an area of 327 square kilometres along the stretch of East-West highway in the country. The municipality is home to 47,655 people as per census 2011. The municipality is divided into 9 wards. The municipality has declared open defecation free zone in 2014.

The municipality lacks sewer networks …

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2336 Views
137 Downloads

Sanitation has become a critical issue in the cities today. Ever growing population in the cities
has made it difficult to provide quality service to all its citizens. Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM),
the national flagship programme is dedicated to the improvement of sanitation condition in the
country. Ministry is extending technical and financial assistance to ULBs for improving …

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1166 Views
35 Downloads

The sustainability of open defecation free (ODF) status in rural areas where toilets frequently collapse is a global concern.
In Tanzania, SNV has developed an innovative approach called Jirani sanitation groups (JSGs). 'Jirani' means neighbour and the approach is based on community support; if a toilet collapses another can be built with the help of neighbours.

This case study presents the …

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1298 Views
100 Downloads

Due to the lack of investment in a proper sanitation system in the Philippines - including sewage collection and treatment - close to 20% of the population (approx. 20 million) suffer from inadequate access to sanitation and 9 million rely on unsafe water sources. Additionally, a significant portion of the population is resorting to open defecation (6 million) as a negative coping mechanism, …

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1428 Views
84 Downloads

Since 2017, SNV and the Government of Tanzania have been implementing the Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene for All (SSH4A) programme in eight Tanzanian districts. To date, the number of households that use toilets has increased to 90%. In the period March–April 2019, SNV Tanzania undertook a household survey in the eight project districts to identify the 10% of households still practising …

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864 Views
25 Downloads

In India, the Government’s Smart Cities Mission launched in 2016 seeks to develop 100 cities across the country making them citizen friendly and sustainable. There is a focus on efficiency, improved public services, goods, spaces, and modernisation of pubic services. At the same time, in 2014 the Government of India launched its Swachh Bharat Mission with the objectives of eliminating open …

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225 Downloads

Mandalay is located on the bank of the Irrawaddy on a rather flat and low flood plain, in the centre of Myanmar’s dry-zone. Mandalay is the second largest city of Myanmar. Mandalay experiences increased informal settlements due to rapid expansion.

All sanitation infrastructures in Mandalay are onsite. The SFD graphic shows that 100% of excreta is not properly managed. It consists of 34% of …

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177 Downloads

Sylhet, is a major city in north-eastern Bangladesh and is the capital of Sylhet Division. Sylhet City Corporation (SCC) was established in 2002. It comprises of 27 wards and the total area is 26.50 sq. km with a population of 270,606.

The majority of the population use septic tanks (65%), around 20% uses toilets connected to lined tanks and pits and the rest (15%) use toilets discharging …

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214 Downloads

Gazipur is one of the districts of Dhaka division and Gazipur City Corporation comprises of 57 wards and its total area is 329.53 sq. km. The total population of Gazipur City Corporation is about 2.5 million with a population density of 1,884/sq km.

The majority of the population use septic tanks (98%), and around 2% use toilet with pits. There is no open defecation found in the municipality. …

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254 Downloads

Itahari Sub-Metropolitan is the largest city in Sunsari District located in the Province No.1 of south-eastern Nepal.
The total population was 1,40,517 living in 33,794 households extended in the area of 93.78 square kilometres and the population growth rate is 6.23.

The sub-metropolitan does not have municipal sewer network, thus every household rely on onsite sanitation system. No open …

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2177 Views
165 Downloads

Enugu City is a major commercial and industrial hub in southeastern Nigeria with an estimated population of just over a million people, although this figure increases during the daytime as many residents of the state come to the city to work and trade.

A study estimated that 70 percent of Enugu city’s population live in areas of higher density and lower income in tenement-type housing. …

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2682 Views
499 Downloads

The city of Blantyre is the commercial and financial centre of Malawi and is located around 300 kilometres south-east of the capital, Lilongwe. Blantyre is situated at an altitude of approximately 1,050 meters above the sea level with a population of 1,068,681. Over 65 percent of the city’s population live in unplanned, informal settlements that are expanding quickly. The Blantyre City Council …

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72 Downloads

Ramnagar city is situated on the banks of the Ganga River in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The population of the city is 49,132 and its population density is 13,572 persons per sq.km (data from 2011). The slum population is 1,958,
representing 3.98% of the total population.

The existing sewer network covers about 70% of the households. The rest of the city (16%) is either dependent on …

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2030 Views
96 Downloads

Katihar, the district headquarters of Katihar District, is located in the state of Bihar, India. The population of Katihar city is 240,838 with a population density of 9,437 persons per sq.km (Data from 2011). During the post-independence period, commerce showed a phenomenal increase with the associated small scale industrial development, which resulted in the increase of city population.

72 …

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72 Downloads

The city of Gangaghat is located 83 km south west from Lucknow, the state capital. The population of the city is 84,072 (data from 2011) with a population density of 17,122 persons per sq.km.

It was found that there is no sewerage network and the entire population is dependent on Onsite Sanitation Systems (OSS). Septic tank connected to open drain is used by 70% population, 14% practice open …

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1883 Views
124 Downloads

Chunar is situated on the banks of River Ganga and River Jirgo, in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The population of the city is 37,185 (data from 2011).

There is no sewerage network in the city and 71% of the city is dependent on onsite sanitation systems (OSS), out of which 60% are dependent on septic tanks and around 11% on pits. 29% of the population still practices open defecation. …

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1976 Views
85 Downloads

Buxar city is situated on the banks of River Ganga in the state of Bihar, India. The population of the city is 102,861, while slum population is 10,161 (data from 2011).

It was observed that there is no sewerage network existing in the city and the equivalent population is dependent on Onsite Sanitation Systems (OSS). There is no treatment facility available for FS generated. Emptied FS from …

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0 Downloads

Open defecation (OD), an age-old practice in India, impacts the health of individuals as well as their communities. To tackle the problem, the Government of India launched the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) in 2014, aimed at making the country open-defecation free (ODF) by October 2019 by giving more attention to community-based approaches. However, while such approaches have helped solve the …

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292 Downloads

November 19 is World Toilet Day. Enormous progress has been made in the global effort to provide safe and affordable toilets for the world’s poorest citizens since World Toilet Day was first declared in 2001. Significant strides have been made in “reinventing” toilet designs for low-income, water-short, unsewered urban zones; celebrites such as Bill Gates and Matt Damon have brought this …

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89 Downloads

Ouagadougou is the capital of Burkina Faso and the largest city of the country. It is located in the central region of Burkina Faso and had a population of 2,532,311 in 2015 (INSD, 2015) and projected total population of more than 2.7 million in 2017 (ONEA, 2017). The population density is estimated to be 903 persons per km2 within its municipal council area of 2,805 km2. Additionally, the annual …

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513 Downloads

Mavoko Town is one of the eight sub-counties of Machakos County in Kenya, which is located around 30km southeast of Nairobi. The whole area of Mavoko covers 963 km2 including large rural parts. This SFD focuses on the service area of the local Water Service Provider (WSP) named Mavoko Water and Sewerage Company (MAVWASCO). The WSP serves the urban agglomerations of Mavoko, which are organized in …

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472 Downloads

Lusaka is the capital city of Zambia. Situated in the central part of Zambia on the Central African Plateau it is one of the fastest-developing cities in Southern Africa. Lusaka is both the political and economic centre of Zambia. Lusaka District is located within Lusaka Province, the smallest but most densely populated of the eleven Zambian provinces (CSO, 2014). According to projections by the …

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The SFD graphic and report covers Kakuma town and Kakuma refugee camp. Kakuma town is located in northern Kenya, in the northwestern part of Turkana County approximately 123 km north of the county capital Lodwar and about 100 km east from the border to South Sudan. Kakuma town is located on the eastern bank of Tarach River. In 2018, the town population is around 58,878 inhabitants. Kakuma refugee …

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Douala is the economic capital of Cameroon. In 2005, Douala had 1,907,479 inhabitants (RGPH, 2010). With a growth rate of 4.7%, the population of the city was estimated to be 3,309,939 inhabitants in 2017. The total area of the city (excluding Douala VI and Wouri River) is about 41,000ha. According to ENSP/L3E (2014), 30 to 40% of the area is occupied by slums. Only 50% of housing in Douala can …

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Da Lat is located on the Langbiang highland plateau at the northern area of Lam Dong Province. The city consists of 12 wards and 4 communes with a total population of 226,978 people by the end of 2017 (CIPTT, 2018). The maximum population density in the central region is 15,632 people/km2, and only 100 people/km2 in the communes.
Nearly 100% of the population in Da Lat uses onsite sanitation …

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Buon Ma Thuot is the capital city of Dak Lak province. It is located in the southwest of Dak Lak and borders Dak Nong province in the west and four districts of Dak Lak province in the other directions. It has a population of about 457,000 (Statistic Office of Vietnam, 2016) with a general growth rate of 1.12% per year.
In Buon Ma Thuot, 18% of the population uses offsite sanitation systems. A …

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Thatta is the main city of Thatta district, in the province of Sindh, Pakistan and has a population of 101,833 (Census, 2017) individuals in 17,998 households. Thatta city is spread over an area of 3823 km² (urban/Rural) and has a population density of 109 people per km².
There are no pit latrines in Thatta, and there is almost no use of septic tanks. 85% of the population uses offsite …

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79 Downloads

Ouahigouya is a mid-sized city located in the northern part of Burkina Faso and is the capital of the Province of Yatenga. Ouahigouya is approximately 180 km from Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. Ouahigouya district is composed of both urban and rural areas. The urban area is 108 km2 and is divided into 15 administrative areas. The rural area is composed of 37 villages. The total …

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Lahan Municipality is a small commercial town in Siraha District, located in province number 2 in Nepal. It has a population of about 93,000 people and is nearly 350 kilometres east of the capital city Kathmandu. The majority of the population in Lahan (92%) uses onsite sanitation systems. 3% of the residents use toilets discharging directly into open drains, while an estimated 5% practices open …

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The Cambodian town of Kampong Chhnang is the capital of Kampong Chhnang Province. The Province is located to the northwest of Phnom Penh, the country’s capital and occupies the south-eastern edge of the Tonle Sap Basin. It borders Kampong Thom to the North, Kampong Cham to the East, Kampong Speu to the South and Pursat to the West. According to the Kampong Chhnang Municipal Authority, the …

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177 Downloads

Jatoi city has twenty-two urban wards and is located in the Muzaffargarh district of Southern Punjab. The city is a peri-urban area and most of the settlements are informal. Lack of available land is a common issue. The total population of the city is 159,144, according to the 2017 census report. Most houses have their own latrines, and hand washing facilities range from jerry cans to wash …

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The responses provided a canvas of problems with sustaining ODF that covers technical, behavioural and physical issues. These issues, persistent since before SBM, must be overcome before India could move onto ODF+, ODF++ and ODF-S. All the issues were related to the ODF-centric approach of SBM that focussed only on toilet coverage.

The technical problems concerned the quality of construction …

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Over half the world’s population now lives in urban areas and a large proportion of them lives without improved sanitation. Efforts to tackle open defecation in rural areas has been led by the Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) movement. But how can the community mobilization techniques of CLTS be adapted to the more complex situations and transient populations in urban areas? How can …

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0 Downloads

About the Training Modules

Training Modules on decentralsid sanitation, septage and waste water have been developed, tested and delivered by SCBP during 2016-17, during training of government officials from UP, Rajasthan, MP, Telengana, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh. These Modules have also been used in Training of Trainers(ToTs) of Amrut Nodal Agencies, Academia, …

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About the Training Modules

Training Modules on decentralsid sanitation, septage and waste water have been developed, tested and delivered by SCBP during 2016-17, during training of government officials from UP, Rajasthan, MP, Telengana, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh. These Modules have also been used in Training of Trainers(ToTs) of Amrut Nodal Agencies, Academia, …

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3462 Views
52 Downloads

The Measurement, Evidence, and Dissemination, for Scale (MEDS) initiative was created by merging the Measurement, Learning and Evaluation (MLE) initiative with the Building Demand for Sanitation (BDS) initiative at the end of 2015. The 2017 MEDS Convening was the 2nd convening under MEDS but the 6th annual meeting for many of the participants, formally convening under the BDS portfolio.

In …

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0 Downloads

Since Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is our key intervention for sanitation and hygiene promotion in Malawi, it provides an excellent opportunity to facilitate hand washing behavior change. However, up till now, the “triggering tools” for achieving HWWS behavior change from CLTS have not been well known by implementers in Malawi. The purpose of this document is to outline several …

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The heart of the program is about “triggering” or “igniting” communities to change their hygiene and sanitation habits, namely by constructing and using latrines instead of defecating in the open. In Ethiopia, CLTS was the precursor to CLTSH, a modified version that has an added hygiene component. As with its predecessor, CLTSH functions without subsidies and has as its primary goal the …

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40 Downloads

This guideline is a ready reckoner for Urban Local Bodies of Gujarat to achieve Open Defecation Free cities/towns. The document has been prepared based on the National guidelines of Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban).
The document highlights strategies for achieving OD free settlements include but are not limited to:
1. Ensuring adequacy of toilets –individual and public toilets and Effective …

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136 Downloads

The Handbook is an initiative of Sanitation Capacity Building Platform (SCBP) to build capacities in Feacal Sludge and Septage Management (FSSM) for officials of urban local bodies (ULB), para state technical agencies, administrators and professionals from the private sector and Non-governmental Organizations. It is meant to be freely used by any can organization (public or private), national and …

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Sanitation has been on the forefront of development agenda in India. The Government of India's Swachh Bharat Mission aims to make the whole country Open Defecation Free by 2019. How cities become ODF and what can other cities learn from ODF cities? This was the aim in organising a two day workshop for city officials from Rajasthan. The workshop also included a visit to an ODF city. It was …

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16 Downloads

Unilever convened a group of like-minded companies, NGO’s and research professionals, with expertise in sanitation and marketing and a desire to take immediate action to address this issue.

The focus has been on households having access to their own toilet, either inside or outside the home. In particular the low LSM consumer, whose basic needs for food & shelter are met and who have some …

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0 Downloads

The video is a documentary about the Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach, an innovative methodology for mobilising communities to completely eliminate open defecation and take their own action to become open defecation free. It shows projects in Bangladesh and interviews with one of its pioneers Dr. Kamal Kar.

It has been produced 2008 within the BBC earth report series on …

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The SuSanA India Chapter seminar took place in Pune, 18 November 2017 in the course of the SANIVATION’17 event. It was organized by the Ecosan Services Foundation, the India Sanitation Coalition and the SuSanA secretariat. The context of the topic was that Maharashtra State Government has recently declared all cities to be open defecation-free (ODF).
The seminar successfully connected …

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Safe disposal of children’s feces is as essential as that of adults’ feces. The Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) tracks progress toward the Millennium Development Goal 7 target to halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. The JMP standardized definition for an improved sanitation facility is …

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16 Downloads

The technical performance and user acceptance of a novel on-site sanitation system based on vermifiltration was tested for over 12 months in rural India. Ten households (mean household size = 5.6 people) who had previously practised open defecation trialled a pour flush toilet linked to a vermifilter, together known as a ‘Tiger Toilet’. Technical parameters which were monitored over this …

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195 Downloads

Patna, the state capital of Bihar, is situated on the southern bank of Ganga River. The city is surrounded by two other rivers on two other sides: Sone River and Pun-Pun River.
Patna is the second largest city in eastern India after Kolkata. For the preparation of the SFD, the territory of Patna Municipal Corporation (PMC) is selected.
The total population of the city is 1.68 million with …

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10 Downloads

Container-based sanitation (CBS) – in which wastes are captured in sealable containers that are then transported to treatment facilities – is an alternative sanitation option in urban areas where on-site sanitation and sewerage are infeasible. This paper presents the results of a pilot household CBS service in Cap Haitien, Haiti. We quantify the excreta generated weekly in a dense urban slum, …

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Tikapur is a municipality of over 60,000 inhabitants (56,136, 2011 census), located on the right bank of the Karnali river in the Terai district of Kailali, far western region. It is a “new town” and was founded about 50 years ago and is composed of four main different socio-economic settings. There is a well-planned core-urban area in Ward 9, which is based on a master plan prepared in 1972, …

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Elimination of open defecation is one of the key components of the Swachh Andhra Mission. In order to achieve open defecation free towns, ensuring adequacy through construction of toilets –individual, community and public toilets and effective operations and maintenance is the strategic approach which the scheme emphasizes. Individual Household Toilet (IHHT) is a major component of the SBM. …

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The SuSanA India Chapter seminar about the topic towards ODF+ Urban Maharashtra was held in Pune, India on 18 November 2017 during the event SANIVATION’17 around World Toilet Day. Please also find the final report of the conference below.

The context of the seminar was that Maharashtra State Government has recently declared all cities to be open defecation free (ODF). The seminar encouraged …

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63 Downloads

Bansberia is a town in the Hooghly district of West Bengal, India. Bansberia Municipality was the nerve center of “Saptagram”, a port city, famous for its inland and foreign trades with Europe since 17th Century. Bansberia has a population of 1,03,799. The population density of the city is 11,445 persons per sq.km, which is high in comparison to the population density of West Bengal, i.e. …

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287 Downloads

Santa Cruz de la Serria Metropolitan Area (SCMA) is the second largest urban area in Bolivia. It is a major economic centre in Bolivia. There are approximately 1.9 million inhabitants in SCMA. The city is considered to be one of the fastest growing cities in the world. Santa Cruz is located in eastern Bolivia on the Pirai Riva at an altitude of 416 m above sea level. SCMA has a tropical savanna …

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The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) was formed in 2007 with the aim of promoting and lobbying for sustainability in sanitation in the context of the Millennium Development Goals. Over the last 10 years SuSanA has made a significant contribution to sector development, with sector actors now focussing increasingly on the sustainability of sanitation services in a variety of ways. …

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53 Downloads

With the implementation of the SuSanA Indian Chapter, disucssions around Sanitation in India are held in a regular period on the SuSanA Forum.
In India, Swachh Bharat Mission has been launched 2nd October 2014 to eradicate open defecation and implement behaviour change across India´s society. The following is a synthesis of the posts published during the discussion about the challenges and …

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67 Downloads

With the implementation of the SuSanA Indian Chapter, this TDS was the first with focus on sanitation in India. Since it was launched 2nd October, 2014, Swacch Bharat Mission (SBM) has been one of the Indian government’s flagship programmes to eradicate open defecation and implement behaviour change across India´s society.

The first thematic online discussion of the India Sanitation …

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This study provides an assessment of the global costs of meeting the WASH-related targets of SDG 6. The targets assessed include achieving universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all (target 6.1), achieving access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all, and ending open defecation (target 6.2). The estimates include 140 countries, or 85% of the …

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17 Downloads

Many low-income countries face the hefty challenge of increasing sanitation coverage, in both rural and urban areas, which demand di erent solutions. In response, governments, with support from international agencies, bilateral donors and non-government organisations, are deploying a range of programmes and policies to accelerate progress towards the new global goals. Community-led total …

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42 Downloads

This paper presents the general sanitation practices by the traders in a major market in Kuje located in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja and our efforts in reorientating the market stakeholders towards the provision and use of a new dry sanitation toilet complex. The market is known for its diversity in Nigerian ethnicity, culture and the variety of goods and services. A novel toilet …

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290 Downloads

Bure is located 400 km north of the capital Addis Ababa and 148 km south west of Bahir Dar and is within the Amhara State, Western Gojjam Administrative Zone of Ethiopia. It has a total urban population of 27,386 people. The number of Open Defecation is only 2%. Nevertheless, none of the city's excreta is delivered to a treatment plant. Therefore, only 33% of the city's excreta is safely managed, …

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428 Downloads

Bishoftu is located in the state of Oromia, Ethiopia, approximately 47 km south east of Addis Ababa. Its topography is undulating and characterized by flat land on the north and east parts of the city, locked by several lakes, while the south is dominated by hills (BCP, 2015). The geographical area of the city is about 15,273 ha, and it lies at an altitude in the range of 1900 m. to 1995 m. The …

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529 Downloads

Axum is located in the Tigray region in the northern tip of the Ethiopian Plateau. The town is 1,041km away from the capital, Addis Ababa, with a population of 46,887. The number of Open Defecation is only 4%. Nevertheless, none of the city's excreta is delivered to a treatment plant. Therefore, only 22% of the city's excreta is safely managed, while 78% is unsafely managed.

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55 Downloads

Policies are considered critical for creating an enabling environment for improving access to sanitation and hygiene services. There are, however, certain requirements that policies must meet for them to be coherent and supportive. This paper presents a comparative assessment of the sanitation policy and institutional frameworks in Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania based on a …

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15 Downloads

Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory approach to addressing open defecation that has demonstrated success in previous studies, yet there is no research on how implementation arrangements and context change effectiveness. We used a quasi-experimental study design to compare two interventions in Ethiopia: conventional CLTS in which health workers and local leaders provided …

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5 Downloads

This assessment finds that the policies in Rwanda, Uganda, and Tanzania meet many of the recommended criteria, but are still lacking key aspects to adequately cater for sustainability of services and functionality of facilities. Further, policies should reflect the needs and preferences of people. This is usually not the case because policies are very ambitious and hard to fully translate to …

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29 Downloads

The partial or total non-use of toilets, with some or all in a household defecating in the open, is a growing concern. Although all households may have a toilet, communities cannot remain open defecation free unless they are always used by everyone. This is not just an issue of maintenance and accessibility but also of social norms, mind-sets, and cultural preferences. The problem is widespread …

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55 Downloads

The Open Defecation Free (ODF) Malawi 2015 Strategy and National Hand Washing Campaign have been contributing to an increased focus on handwashing with soap (HWWS) in Malawi.1 This is a very positive development!

Some studies estimate that washing hands with soap can reduce diarrhoeal disease rates by up to 50 per cent and respiratory disease rates by up to 25 per cent. This makes handwashing …

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In this working paper, we draw on basic scientific findings from psychology, cognitive science, and behavioral economics to propose a framework of 8 System 1 Principles to support the initiation and maintenance of OD behavior change. In doing so, we build from the general framework advanced in the World Bank Group’s (2015) World Development Report: Mind, Society, and Behavior, which emphasized …

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61 Downloads

Residents of informal settlements in developing countries are faced with various challenges, including a lack of household sanitation facilities, which leads to use of alternative methods such as open defecation. The lack of household sanitation facilities and consequent use of improper methods necessitated the introduction of communal sanitation facilities in informal settlements as a way of …

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During the immediate phase of an emergency in an urban context, the implementation of sanitation programmes takes a long time to provide suitable and sufficient facilities for the affected population.

While the emergency response for drinking water programmes has been improved with the design of standardised, rapid deployment kits, sanitation programmes in urban areas are limited to very few …

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343 Downloads

Sixty-four percent of Bikaner’s city (population of 644,406 people) depends on offsite systems, 31% depends on onsite sanitation systems (OSS), mainly septic tanks, while 5% of population practices open defecation. The city has three Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) where 41% of the waste water is treated but there are not treatment facilities for septage. One private emptier is responsible for …

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The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council Community of Practice on Sanitation and Hygiene in Developing Countries (WSSCC CoP) and the global Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) came together in late September 2015 to hold a joint three-week thematic discussion on sanitation and hygiene behaviour change programming and sustainability. It was the first time the two networks had …

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The dominant nutrition discourse concerns access to adequate food and its quality. It now includes food security, food rights and justice, governance and agriculture. Despite many initiatives to assure food access, and growing economies, high levels of undernutrition persist in much of Asia. It is increasingly suggested that much of this ‘Asian enigma’ can now be explained by open defecation …

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WSP’s Scaling Up Rural Sanitation is working with governments and the local private sector to develop the knowledge needed to scale up rural sanitation for the poor. The programmatic approach combines Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), behaviour change communication, and sanitation marketing to generate sanitation demand and build up the supply of sanitation products and services at scale. …

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The article by Fiona Budge asserts that ‘Shit’ is still a highly sensitive topic across all cultures, which has led to diverse problems establishing programmes that aim to prevent Open Defecation. On basis of a case study in Nepal and theories of disgust this publication reflects on the reasons for the taboo state of the topic and possible solutions.

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There are today more people without access to adequate sanitation than in 2000, despite the commitment included in the MDGs to halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to basic sanitation. This has many consequences for the well-being and potential of many people: sanitation related diseases account for about 800,000 children death per year; open defecation leads to …

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This library entry contains documents for a grant that Maria Laura Alzua is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Goal:
to improve the evidence of the effectiveness of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs on health and behavioral outcomes

Purpose (copied from Trial description: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01900912):

Behavioral change is a …

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This report covers the main findings of the impact evaluation conducted of a communityled total sanitation (CLTS) campaign implemented by the government of Mali (Direction Nationale de l’Assainissement) with the support of UNICEF. We conducted a clusterrandomized controlled trial among 121 villages randomly selected from the district of Koulikoro in order to evaluate health and non-health …

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At the 4thAfrican Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene (AfricaSan), convened by the Government of Senegal with support from the African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW) in Dakar, Senegal, May 25-27, 2015, the Ministers and Heads of Delegations responsible for sanitation and hygiene in Africa, together with senior civil servants, academics, civil society, development partners and the private …

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This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Marc Deshusses is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Further Information is also available on the discussion Forum (see link below).

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Based on the results, the following recommendations to any organization considering a large-scale, India-wide sample survey to monitor open defecation, latrine use, and progress towards the Swatchh Bharat Mission in rural India are made:

1. Ask about open defecation as part of an existing survey that already includes a household roster.

2. Ask about open defecation and latrine use …

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This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Sangita Vyas is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Short description of the project:

Open defecation imposes enormous costs on children’s health and human capital, and is exceptionally widespread in India. We believe that there is convincing evidence of the benefits for health and human …

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1399 Downloads

This case study describes a combined waste management and sustainable sanitation project conducted by GIZ in Lokossa, Mono region, Benin. The project has been developed by the GIZ advisory project “Concepts for Sustainable Waste Management” in cooperation with the GIZ Water and Sanitation Programme (PEP) of Benin. Local partners include the municipality of Lokossa, the NGOs Protos, DCAM …

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5 Downloads

This fact sheet describes the setting up of a new non-profit water- and nutrient-testing laboratory in Patna, India, to support a set of pilot projects promoting sustainable sanitation solutions in the state of Bihar and provide a valuable and unique service to the public.

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This fact sheet describes a pilot project that introduced enclosed long-term composting (ELTC) technology for the first time in the Indian context.

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This fact sheet describes a pilot project that supported construction of household ecological sanitation (ecosan) toilets specially adapted to be resistant to seasonal flooding, in a poor rural community in India's Bihar State.

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Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

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The 32nd SuSanA meeting - the third time online - will take place on August 22nd August 2022. It is organised by the SuSanA Secretariat with support and contributions from SuSanA Partners, Members, Working Groups and Regional Chapters. 

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The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.


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Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

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Use the map or the search tool to access the most relevant information and knowledge products for your region or country. This includes relevant resources, events, partners or projects.

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Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

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Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »


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Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

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