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Sanitation Library

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290 Views
14 Downloads

WASHaLOT 3.0 is a versatile design of a group handwashing facility that accommodates many users at the same time and a water-saving facility with automatically closing individual water outlets. To support the adaption of the WASHaLOT 3.0, documents are made available to the public to guide in the production process of the WASHaLOT 3.0.

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167 Views
2 Downloads

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced the restriction of movement and closure of borders in many locations in Myanmar. This coupled with lack of access and mobility to certain areas for security reasons posed challenges to monitor handwashing interventions. In response, UNICEF developed a real time remote monitoring tool for handwashing facility distribution and installation using RapidPro, a free, …

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695 Views
32 Downloads

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need for regular hand hygiene at a global level. Although the urgency of this context cannot be denied, the benefits from streamlining hand hygiene at a global scale are immense and go beyond the current pandemic response.

WASHaLOT is an innovative group handwashing facility that has been adapted for the Ugandan context. It is a durable, cost effective, …

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449 Views
15 Downloads

On July 16th 2015, flash floods triggered by Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) submerged various parts of the Chitral District; the northern district of Pakistan, bordering Afghanistan. The floods destroyed houses, livestock and public infrastructure. The disaster claimed three lives and left 250,000 people without access to basic services and relief supplies. More than 60% of households were …

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198 Views
1 Downloads

The brief is focused on hand hygiene. We have long understood the importance of hand hygiene for the reduction of diarrhoeal diseases, respiratory infections, hospital-acquired infections and during outbreaks like cholera and Ebola. Hand washing with soap or alcohol-based hand rub is an effective COVID-19 prevention measure along with physical distancing and appropriate mask use. Despite the many …

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180 Views
0 Downloads

UNHCR, World Vision, and RANAS Ltd. came together in April 2020 to design a theory-driven evidence-based behaviour change intervention aiming to increase handwashing with soap (HWWS) and physical distancing among Tongogara Refugee Camp residents in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

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321 Views
0 Downloads

239 Views
0 Downloads

Handwashing with soap effectively prevents diarrhoea, a leading cause of death in infants. Theory-based interventions are expected to promote handwashing more successfully than standard approaches. The present article investigates the underlying change processes of theory-based handwashing interventions. A nonrandomised field study compared a standard approach to two theory-based interventions …

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132 Views
1 Downloads

Oxfam and Unilever’s Chief Sustainability Office carried out extensive research on handwashing practice in emergency contexts. We found nurture to be one of the most powerful motivators driving handwashing with soap among mothers. Even during a crisis, mothers continue to nurture their children to ensure they go onward in life and succeed in bringing fruition to their efforts and fulfillment to …

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188 Views
0 Downloads

Oxfam and Unilever’s Chief Sustainability Office carried out extensive research on handwashing practice in emergency contexts. We found nurture to be one of the most powerful motivators driving handwashing with soap among mothers. Even during a crisis, mothers continue to nurture their children to ensure they go onward in life and succeed in bringing fruition to their efforts and fulfillment to …

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137 Views
1 Downloads

Oxfam and Unilever’s Chief Sustainability Office carried out extensive research on handwashing practice in emergency contexts. We found nurture to be one of the most powerful motivators driving handwashing with soap among mothers. Even during a crisis, mothers continue to nurture their children to ensure they go onward in life and succeed in bringing fruition to their efforts and fulfillment …

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213 Views
11 Downloads

Handwashing promotion programmes in emergencies are important, as they significantly contribute to the reduction of diarrhoea-related diseases. These programmes traditionally focus on the health benefits of handwashing as a key motivator. Information – in the form of messages – is delivered to beneficiaries about the key times to wash hands and how doing this at certain times can reduce …

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161 Views
2 Downloads

In Bangladesh diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. Handwashing with soap reduces the risk of infection; however, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain low. Handwashing stations – a dedicated, convenient location where both soap and water are available for handwashing – are associated with improved …

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289 Views
0 Downloads

Abstract
In humanitarian emergency settings there is need for low cost and rapidly deployable interventions to protect vulnerable children, in- and out-of-school, from diarrhoeal diseases. Handwashing with soap can greatly reduce diarrhoea but interventions specifically targeting children's handwashing behaviour in humanitarian settings have not been tested. Traditional children's handwashing …

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316 Views
3 Downloads

This was an interventional study carried out over a period of 5 days among 21 schoolchildren aged 12–18 years in their respective school premises. Participants were requested to rub their hands with an UV-sensitive fluorescent lotion and then wash them. Hands were air-dried and examined under UV rays for blue light emission in a dark room. Emission of blue light highlighted parts of hand where …

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329 Views
0 Downloads

244 Views
2 Downloads

This handbook is based on the experience of the Global Handwashing Partnership and presents best practices and new concepts to improve the uptake of handwashing. This handbook updates the approaches shared in the previous Handwashing Handbook, which was published in 2005 by the World Bank with support from the partners of the Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing (PPPHW), the original …

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164 Views
0 Downloads

Handwashing with soap is an effective way to prevent diseases and build healthy futures. For handwashing to be effective, it needs to be practiced consistently and thoroughly. Even when people have access to soap and water, and know how and why to wash their hands, many still do not properly wash their hands consistently at critical times. The handwashing behavior change challenge is not only to …

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257 Views
4 Downloads

The simple hygiene habits of handwashing with soap and toothbrushing significantly contribute to the health and well-being of children and should be part of their education. While the idea of teaching handwashing and toothbrushing in schools has been around for decades, the actual practice of these activities has been hindered by long queues around the washing station. The concept of building …

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220 Views
0 Downloads

Background: Hygiene promotion interventions are likely to be more effective if they target the determinants of handwashing behaviour. Synthesis of the evidence on the determinants of handwashing behaviour is needed to enable practitioners to use evidence in hygiene promotion programming.
Purpose: To identify, define and categorise the determinants of handwashing behaviour in domestic settings …

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194 Views
3 Downloads

Consistent hand hygiene can reduce morbidity and mortality from diarrheal and respiratory diseases. Diarrhea and pneumonia are still the leading causes of mortality among children under five years of age in low-income and middle-income countries. Recent findings suggest that interventions promoting handwashing with soap lead to a 40% reduction in the risk of diarrhea. Despite its health impact, …

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312 Views
3 Downloads

Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called “triggering.” This qualitative study explored community members' and …

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289 Views
1 Downloads

Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary …

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204 Views
2 Downloads

The FOAM (Focus on Opportunity, Ability, and Motivation) is a framework designed to help in the development, monitoring, and evaluation of handwashing behavior change programs. FOAM was developed for use in resource-poor settings, but it can also be adapted for other socioeconomic environments. This working paper is intended for use by program managers implementing handwashing behavior change …

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149 Views
3 Downloads

100 Views
0 Downloads

Handwashing with soap, when done correctly, is critical in the fight against COVID-19, but 3 billion people have no ready access to a place to wash their hands with soap at home. WHO released interim guidance on 1 April 2020, recommending to all Member States to make hand hygiene facilities in front of public and private commercial buildings as well as at all transport hubs obligatory. In …

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306 Views
2 Downloads

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that all member states provide universal access to public handwashing facilities. Consequently, WaterAid and other organisations have been working with governments to install handwashing facilities in a wide range of public places and buildings, to support improved handwashing practices and reduce …

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66 Views
0 Downloads

This Campbell Systematic Review examines the effectiveness of different approaches for promoting handwashing and sanitation behaviour change, and factors affecting implementation, in low and middle-income countries. The review summarises evidence from 42 impact evaluations, and from 28 qualitative studies.

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2820 Views
702 Downloads

Handwashing Facilities - Overview and Decision Support Tool with Case Studies from Uganda

The objectives of this publication are twofold. The first objective is to give an overview of common types of handwashing facilities with a number of key aspects that need to be considered during the planning stage. Focus is placed on handwashing facilities that are generally suitable for installation at …

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143 Views
3 Downloads

Handwashing with soap for minimum 40 seconds is one of the precautionary measures suggested and advocated globally since the outbreak of COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease). The pandemic has created a demand for behaviour change and sustained practices of Handwashing with soap. This calls for exploring existing options of handwashing stations and create newer designs of handwashing stations globally, …

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274 Views
1 Downloads

Three billion people – 40 per cent of the world’s population – do not have a place in their homes to wash their hands with water and soap. Threem quarters of those who lack access to water and soap live in the world’s poorest countries and are amongst the most vulnerable: children and families living in informal settlements, migrant and refugee camps, or in areas of active conflict. This …

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451 Views
23 Downloads

Globally, 4.2 billion people do not have access to safe sanitation services, and approximately 3 billion lack basic handwashing facilities. Even in 2021, almost 700 million people still practise open defecation and nearly 400 million children attend schools with no sanitation facilities at all.

The large financing gap has been identified as one of the greatest barriers to achieving the water, …

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684 Views
24 Downloads

Three billion people – 40 per cent of the world’s population – do not have a place in their homes to wash their hands with water and soap. Three quarters of those who lack access to water and soap live in the world’s poorest countries and are amongst the most vulnerable: children and families living in informal settlements, migrant and refugee camps, or in areas of active conflict. This …

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560 Views
9 Downloads

Sanitation for Millions has assessed its interventions in the three partner countries Jordan, Uganda and Pakistan in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and identified various WASH-related measures which represent an adequate and effective response to COVID 19 in particular and to pandemics and infection control in general.
Handwashing is one of the core activities carried out regarding safe …

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1013 Views
66 Downloads

As COVID response, the programme Water Supply and Sanitation for Refugee Settlements and Host Communities in Northern Uganda (WatSSUP) is supporting measures for improved hand hygiene in institutions. In cooperation with local actors the programme is implementing WASHaLOTs in Health Care Facilities, COVID-19 quarantine stations and schools in Northern Uganda.

The WASHaLOT has been first …

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499 Views
6 Downloads

Diarrhoeal diseases are very common causes of death in low and middle-income countries. The aim for this systematic review was to show which promotional approaches might change handwashing and sanitation behaviour, and which implementation factors affect the success or failure of such promotional approaches.

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581 Views
17 Downloads

COVID-19 pandemic swept across India in April and May 2021, and preventing infection became of paramount importance. The health systems were overwhelmed. Over the past year, we have learnt great deal of how the disease spread. This necessitated expansion of the earlier preventive measures promoted in the early stages of the pandemic in 2020 such as wearing masks, social distancing and washing …

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3742 Views
373 Downloads

This a set of four posters on CAB covering social distancing, the use of masks, handwashing and checking for symptoms.

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382 Views
6 Downloads

At a webinar on 5 May, 2021, World Hand Hygiene Day, IRC, UNICEF, WaterAid India, WHO and the SuSanA India chapter organized a webinar with experts from the field of public health, WASH, disaster management and more. The objective was to reach civil society organizations from across India with a Call to Action. It urged CSOs, local government institutions and other local networks to prioritize …

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1398 Views
106 Downloads

Faced with a debilitating second COVID-19 wave, relevant messaging on CABs is vital to keep millions safe from infection, and support recovery of those infected. This Calls to Action urges CSOs working with communities, and with local Government to prioritize messaging on COVID-19 protective measures, address the need for new or more nuanced messaging, and use effective channels to reach …

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393 Views
11 Downloads

With UNICEFʼs technical support more than 800 women members of 89 Self Help Groups form rural areas of Jharkhand are promoting handwashing with soap and established low cost soap manufacturing units in seven districts.

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319 Views
9 Downloads

Frequent and proper handwashing with soap is vital to prevent the spread of COVID-19. In response, we have developed this Handwashing Compendium for Low Resource Settings. Exinging existing information from different organisations into one place, the compendium provides guidance, local examples of and further resources on accessible low-cost handwashing facilities, environmental cues and …

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419 Views
1 Downloads

The promotion and uptake of effective handwashing practices are critical in ensuring the health of populations affected by emergencies and humanitarian crises. Along with general public health benefits, handwashing can reduce the risk of diarrhoeal disease by up to 50% (Curtis and Cairncross, 2003; Fewtrell et al., 2005; Luby et al., 2005). Handwashing with soap is recognised as an easy, …

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270 Views
0 Downloads

This short video promotes handwashing with soap using sand art as the medium. The commentary is in Odiya.

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1179 Views
0 Downloads

Handwashing with soap is critical in the fight against COVID-19. This film is compilation of different design options for minimal touch hand wash facilities located in Odiya.

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523 Views
14 Downloads

Since 2003 Nepal has been actively promoting the Community Led Total Sanitation approach and, from 2005 onwards; the School Led Total Sanitation approach, to promote Open Defecation Free (ODF) behaviours. The Government has put sanitation and hygiene at the forefront of its development agenda through the Nepal Country Plan for the International Year of Sanitation in 2008, the Sanitation and …

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1080 Views
24 Downloads

• The ASWA-II programme (2017-2022) is being implemented in eight Terai districts to eliminate open defecation and ensure the sustained use of safely managed water supplies and hygiene by people in targeted districts, especially by women and girls and persons with disability.
• At baseline, 47 out of 100 communities were externally ODF certified. However, there are challenges in sustaining …

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448 Views
8 Downloads

The document covers the impact of WASH intervention in families, communities and institutions with a balance between demand and supply, highlighting both child and gender lens. Innovations like cost effective, simple, scalable pedal operated hand washing stations, augmentation of operation and maintenance of community toilets with identification of community touch points, school readiness for …

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1271 Views
95 Downloads

UNICEF/WHO reports that 1.7 million children die annually of diarrhea and pneumonia. Handwashing with soap under running water can prevent the majority of infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, influenza, cold, cholera, dysentery, and contagious eye disease. Several studies have reported reduced incidences of pneumonia and diarrheal diseases by over 40% to 50% through handwashing. However, many …

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1536 Views
66 Downloads

The 30th SuSanA meeting - the first virtual of its kind - took place from August 17th to August 28th 2020. It was organised by the SuSana Secretariat with support and contributions from SuSanA Partners, Members, Working Groups and Regional Chapters.
This entry is the collection point of the different resources from the SuSanA Meeting, including recordings, presentations, flyers and program …

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1246 Views
172 Downloads

This resource guide by Watson, J. & Drebelbis, R. provides an overview of the science behind nudge-based handwashing interventions and the evidence supporting the use of environmental nudges for handwashing in schools in low-resource settings. Resources and tools for planning and implementing nudge-based interventions in schools are also provided.

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1340 Views
31 Downloads

Frequent and proper hand hygiene is one of the most important measures that can be used to prevent infection with the COVID-19 virus. Actions by governments to promote hygiene, including handwashing with soap and water and providing hygiene infrastructure such as public handwashing facilities, are critical at this time. These actions should be complemented by activities to ensure access to water …

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1030 Views
7 Downloads

In the Philippines, GIZ is providing technical assistance to the Department of Education in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (DepEd ARMM) to improve WASH in Schools. GIZ’s support forms Component 2 of the Australian Embassy’s Basic Education Assistance to Muslim Mindanao (BEAM ARMM) program. Additional support is provided by the German government through the Federal Ministry for …

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617 Views
11 Downloads

Schools across ARMM have constructed their own group washing facilities. Simple affordable materials, like used plastic bottles, can be used to make tippy taps, for example, which can make handwashing facilities accessible for all. However, when building more durable structures, many schools struggle to ensure the functionality of their facilities over time. In some cases, schools may lack the …

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1036 Views
44 Downloads

Access to functional and clean group washing facilities in schools allow for WASH activities for a larger number of children at various times throughout the day. Group washing facilities, which need to be water-saving, are designed to enable both group handwashing and individual handwashing. Based on this there is a demand for durable and scalable infrastructure which are long-lasting, low cost …

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732 Views
9 Downloads

In 2016, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport in Cambodia published the ”Guidelines for Minimum Requirements for WASH in Schools“. The guidelines are designed for stepwise improvements of WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) infrastructure and hygiene behavior in schools to reach the national goal of water and sanitation access for all in 2025.

This group washing facility catalogue …

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709 Views
11 Downloads

Schools are the heart of a community where children spend half of their day. They play a unique role in creating healthy learning environments. The social norms and habits developed in children will stay with them all their lives. Thus, by providing a healthy learning environment and promoting healthy practices, schools act as an equalizer for all children from varied economic backgrounds.

The …

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10089 Views
1732 Downloads

10 immediate WASH in schools (WinS) actions;

1. Handwashing
2. Water availability
3. Supplies
4. Cleaning and disinfecting
5. Waste management
6. Physical distancing
7. Establish a monitoring team
8. Operation or training
9. Checklists
10. Hygiene culture

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1703 Views
38 Downloads

In sub‐Saharan Africa, informal markets account for more than 80% of the total food selling. Fish is a major protein source for households in Malawi and is commonly purchased from individual vendors. The aim of this study was to review national acts and policies and local regulations focused on fresh fish sold at open‐air markets or by mobile vendors and to further examine the water, …

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3500 Views
188 Downloads

Frequent and proper handwashing with soap is vital to prevent the spread of COVID-19. In response, we have developed this Handwashing Compendium for Low Resource Settings.
Bringing existing information from different organisations into one place, the compendium provides guidance, local examples of and further resources on accessible low-cost handwashing facilities, environmental cues and …

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1474 Views
103 Downloads

In this webinar development practitioners and religious actors shared their experiences in collaborating to jointly achieve the fulfillment of SDG 6.2. . The speakers showcased best practices and innovative approaches and elaborate their view on the importance of religious actors on achieving universal access to water, sanitation and hygiene.

Unfortunately there were technical difficulties …

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1695 Views
53 Downloads

The Global Handwashing Partnership Think Tank series brings together hygiene experts from civil society, government, research institutions, and the private sector to drive learning and action in handwashing behavior change. The 2018 Think Tank was hosted in Manila, Philippines, from October 10 – 12. The presentations can be found in the annex of the report.

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1118 Views
11 Downloads

In Tamil Nadu, currently, a range of behaviour deficits exist along the full cycle of sanitation at the stages of access, containment, emptying, transport, treatment and re-use/disposal. However, communication strategies in the sanitation sector have been largely limited to promoting hygiene behaviours such as handwashing or stopping open defecation by promoting the use of toilets. While these …

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868 Views
7 Downloads

In Tamil Nadu, currently, a range of behaviour deficits exist along the full cycle of sanitation at the stages of access, containment, emptying, transport, treatment and re-use/disposal. However, communication strategies in the sanitation sector have been largely limited to promoting hygiene behaviours such as handwashing or stopping open defecation by promoting the use of toilets. While these …

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897 Views
10 Downloads

Q1: Do girls miss school because of menstruation? ‘One in ten girls in sub-Saharan Africa misses school during their period’. This truism has not been substantiated, but empirical evidence from low- and middle-income countries has accumulated, confirming a negative effect at varying levels (from less than 10 to more than 50 percent absence during menstruation). One study from Uganda found …

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1154 Views
36 Downloads

The study used qualitative methods to assess the effects of a multi-modal school-based water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) intervention on handwashing behaviour among primary students in North Western (NW) Tanzania. Barriers and facilitators to handwashing were explored in the students who participated in the Mikono Safi Trial (Kiswahili for ‘Clean Hands). The intervention increased students' …

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742 Views
20 Downloads

The 9th Emergency Environmental Health Forum took place from 18th -19th 2019 in Geneva, Switzerland. It brought together water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) experts. The forum provided an opportunity to exchange recent field experiences and explore innovative approaches amongst over 110 attendees and discuss ways for future action and interventions for WASH in emergencies.

EEHF 2019 …

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939 Views
52 Downloads

This FRESH webinar will Introduce a costing tool to calculate the budget need for schools to provide the basic service level for drinking water, usable sanitation, and handwashing with soap. The tool provides school heads with an easy to manage app, which calculates the annual cost per student depending on local condition and local prices.
How much do they need to keep aside for consumables, …

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1108 Views
19 Downloads

Emotional demonstrations (emo-demos) are used in behaviour-centred design to trigger behaviour changes, such as handwashing with soap, by creating disgust and shame.
Through the Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene For All (SSH4A) programme, vaccination centres in villages were found to be an ideal place to raise awareness of the importance of washing hands with soap among pregnant women, mothers …

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2390 Views
95 Downloads

To assess the future applicability and appropriateness of the WASHaLOT 3.0, a group washing facility designed to facilitate hygiene activities for many people simultaneously whilst using minimal amounts of water at low cost, the Technology Applicability Framework (TAF) has been applied.

The TAF helps to understand if any technology implemented as a pilot fulfils the criteria for further …

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965 Views
0 Downloads

Key Messages:
• Inadequate sanitation and hygiene adversely impacts human well-being.
• In Tanzania basic latrine coverage is high but this still constitutes inadequate
sanitation
• Some families continue to defecate in the open
• Handwashing with soap is not practiced consistently or at the key junctures.
• WSP is implementing a project to scale up access to improved sanitation …

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2422 Views
0 Downloads

The WASHaLOT 3.0 is a prefabricated handwashing facility that accommodate washing activities of 20 persons at a time. It is currently being used in public schools in the Philippines to address the need for schools to facilitate handwashing prior to eating and thereby establish daily hygiene practice in schools.

The facility has the potential to be used in other contexts such as day care …

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1812 Views
51 Downloads

The WASHaLOT 3.0 is a prefabricated handwashing facility that accommodate washing activities of 20 persons at a time. It is currently being used in public schools in the Philippines to address the need for schools to facilitate handwashing prior to eating and thereby establish daily hygiene practice in schools. The facility has the potential to be used in other contexts such as day care centers, …

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4052 Views
264 Downloads

The 8th Emergency Environmental Health Forum (EEHF) event was hosted by the German WASH Network in close collaboration with the Secretariat of the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) at GIZ. The aim of the 2018 EEHF is:
- To share new research and learning
- To discuss new approaches and innovation in the sector
- To bridge silos between WASH and other humanitarian sectors
- To identify …

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1449 Views
17 Downloads

On 14 - 18 November 2016, 160 Experts from 16 Asian countries came together in Jakarta to exchange their experience regarding innovative WASH in Schools (WinS) approaches. The 5th WASH in Schools International Learning Exchange (ILE), was hosted by the Ministry of Education and Culture of Indonesia – with support from UNICEF and GIZ.

The conference concluded with a general agreement among …

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1145 Views
16 Downloads

Access to water, sanitation and hygiene promotion is one of the key aspects to securing the health status of populations affected by emergencies and humanitarian crises. The impact of hygiene promotion and washing of hands with soap has wider health implications, as hands are vectors that can transport disease agents from humans to humans, directly or indirectly. Furthermore, the ability to wash …

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4352 Views
332 Downloads

An overview of the partnership between Oxfam and Lifebuoy that brings together Oxfam’s humanitarian and public health response experience and Lifebuoy’s behaviour change and communications expertise to demonstrate the positive difference a public-private sector partnership can make in promoting health in vulnerable populations.

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4026 Views
387 Downloads

Handwashing with soap is the single most effective way to prevent infectious diseases. Regular handwashing, specifically after using the toilet and before eating should be part of a daily routine in everyone’s life. Schools, kindergardens, day care centers, hospitals, bus-stations, canteens are public places, where handwashing should be made possible for many people at the same time.
In the …

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4366 Views
105 Downloads

Swachh Bharat: Swachh Vidyalaya is the national campaign driving ‘Clean India: Clean Schools’. A key feature of
the campaign is to ensure that every school in India has a set of functioning and well maintained water, sanitation
and hygiene facilities. Water, sanitation and hygiene in schools refers to a combination of technical and human
development components that are necessary to produce …

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6987 Views
385 Downloads

The WHO/UNICEF JMP has published its first report of the SDG period, Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: 2017 update and SDG baselines. The report introduces and defines the new indicators of safely managed drinking water and sanitation services. Estimates of safely managed drinking water services, the indicator for SDG target 6.1, are presented for 96 countries, while estimates …

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2517 Views
50 Downloads

Evidence on Demand was requested by DFID to undertake a rapid desk-based study to assess the level of change in handwashing with soap that could be expected from a successful hygiene promotion intervention in a low or middle-income country setting. As part of this task, a summary of factors that may influence intervention outcomes and
sustainability is provided.

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2287 Views
19 Downloads

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of a hygiene promotion intervention based on germ awareness in increasing handwashing with soap on key occasions (after faecal contact and before eating) in rural Indian households.

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2720 Views
49 Downloads

More than 3·5 million children aged less than 5 years die from diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory-tract infection every year. A randomised controlled trial had been undertaken to assess the effect of handwashing promotion with soap on the incidence of acute respiratory infection, impetigo, and diarrhoea.

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2836 Views
42 Downloads

Diarrhoea and respiratory infections are the two biggest causes of child death globally. Handwashing with soap could substantially reduce diarrhoea and respiratory infections, but prevalence of adequate handwashing is low. Through this research it was tested whether a scalable village-level intervention based on emotional drivers of behaviour, rather than knowledge, could improve handwashing …

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3088 Views
87 Downloads

This paper seeks to improve understanding of approaches used to promote handwashing with soap, with a view to offering practical suggestions when selecting approaches.

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5943 Views
0 Downloads

This collection contains the resources for both trainers and participants for the Latrine Design and Construction workshop. This five-day workshop is designed for latrine project implementers and masons. In this workshop, participants will learn how to design and construct latrines for low-income communities not connected to a sewerage system. The focus is on designing latrines that are …

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2612 Views
15 Downloads

In 2011, one in every four (26%) children under 5 years of age worldwide was stunted. The realization that most stunting cannot be explained by poor diet or by diarrhoea, nor completely reversed by optimized diet and reduced diarrhoea has led to the hypothesis that a primary underlying cause of stunting is subclinical gut disease. Essentially, ingested microbes set in motion two overlapping and …

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3718 Views
55 Downloads

The Open Defecation Free (ODF) Malawi 2015 Strategy and National Hand Washing Campaign have been contributing to an increased focus on handwashing with soap (HWWS) in Malawi.1 This is a very positive development!

Some studies estimate that washing hands with soap can reduce diarrhoeal disease rates by up to 50 per cent and respiratory disease rates by up to 25 per cent. This makes handwashing …

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500 Views
4 Downloads

A recent Lancet paper ranked handwashing in 21st place as a leading cause of Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) globally, stating: “The finding that no handwashing with soap is a global risk present in all regions is a reminder that this nexus of risks is relevant to all countries, not just the poorest.”

As such, it is important that we continue to seek to both learn more about …

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4131 Views
90 Downloads

Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary …

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4066 Views
121 Downloads

These five fact sheets about interventions present case studies from Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, and Uganda and show the effects of different strategies that were applied in order to achieve behavior changes.

Intervention fact sheet 1:
Achieving long-term use of solar water disinfection in Zimbabwe
Household water treatment can guarantee safe drinking water to prevent diarrhea and cholera. However, …

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5199 Views
111 Downloads

The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council Community of Practice on Sanitation and Hygiene in Developing Countries (WSSCC CoP) and the global Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) came together in late September 2015 to hold a joint three-week thematic discussion on sanitation and hygiene behaviour change programming and sustainability. It was the first time the two networks had …

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4116 Views
155 Downloads

Handwashing with soap is a highly effective method for reducing the risk of diarrheal disease, yet interventions to alter this behavior often fail or achieve only short-term success. In this paper, we propose that the “science of habit” can partly explain the challenge of handwashing behavior change. Integrating basic science insights from psychology, cognitive science, and behavior change …

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6503 Views
79 Downloads

This report presents for the first time a multi-country review of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services in health care facilities in 54 low- and middle-income countries. WASH services provide for water availability and quality, presence of sanitation facilities and availability of soap and water for handwashing. The main focus of the results is on water availability as there were very …

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9491 Views
550 Downloads

This publication is the second volume of "Making WASH in Schools ore Sustainable". Similar to Volume I, it showcases various approaches, both practical and innovative, to provide sustainable WASH solutions in schools around the world. The stories are not limited to the construction of water and sanitation systems but also show how these systems are operated and maintained through active …

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4336 Views
125 Downloads

This report covers the main findings of the impact evaluation conducted of a communityled total sanitation (CLTS) campaign implemented by the government of Mali (Direction Nationale de l’Assainissement) with the support of UNICEF. We conducted a clusterrandomized controlled trial among 121 villages randomly selected from the district of Koulikoro in order to evaluate health and non-health …

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4911 Views
70 Downloads

In this library entry we have grouped together up to five documents that we think are important "first reading" materials for anyone wishing to obtain a quick overview of this topic. For more details, please see the external links to the discussion forum below.

The documents listed in this library entry in reverse chronological order already exist as individual library entries but have been …

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6758 Views
236 Downloads

Understanding that the school environment can enable development of healthy behaviors among children who may not have the same learning opportunity in their homes, schools serve as the center of development. Adapted from the experiences of Filipino NGO, Fit For Schools, this toolkit of effective handwashing tools promotes handwashing programs designed for schools and inspires a healthy learning …

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12969 Views
415 Downloads

4312 Views
99 Downloads

11661 Views
345 Downloads

12688 Views
232 Downloads

Establishing schools as enabling places where children can thrive and learn – this is the objective of the Fit for School Approach, an innovative and integrated school health concept that was first developed in the Philippines and has also been introduced in other Southeast Asian countries, namely Cambodia, Indonesia and Laos.

The Fit for School Approach is based on three core principles: …

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13357 Views
363 Downloads

12069 Views
848 Downloads

5440 Views
252 Downloads

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203 Downloads

4063 Views
43 Downloads

Diarrhoea is the leading cause of child deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa and the second largest cause of child deaths globally. The latest available data indicate that in 2008 1.3 million children under the age of five died from diarrhoea, an entirely preventable disease. Hygiene promotion, including handwashing with soap, has been shown to be one of the most effective ways of reducing diarrhoeal …

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11319 Views
125 Downloads

4292 Views
63 Downloads


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