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218 Views
8 Downloads

The purpose of this book is to increase the effectiveness of relief works in providing humanitarian assistance during an emergency. To achieve this purpose, the book provides practical information relevant to the field workers, with a minimum of supporting theoretical background. The book does not aim to set out specific policy guidelines relating to humanitarian assistance- each agency will have …

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189 Views
3 Downloads

Clean water provision is a critical component of emergency response, and chlorination is widely used in emergencies to treat water. To provide responders with practical, evidencebased recommendations for implementing chlorination programmes and recommend areas for future research, we conducted a literature review of chlorination in emergencies, supplemented with a literature review on …

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174 Views
0 Downloads

Persons with disabilities often experience discrimination and exclusion, despite the adoption of an increasingly rights-based approach to humanitarian assistance. The past three decades have witnessed a growing awareness of disability issues and the emergence and spread of disabled people’s organisations.

The growing awareness must be accompanied by practical measures to identify and reduce …

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195 Views
0 Downloads

This document provides guidance for practitioners on conducting market analysis before the onset of an
anticipated crisis using an adaptation of existing post-crisis market assessment tools. Recommendations stemming from this analysis could be used to inform preparedness and DRR programming decision making as well as future emergency responses. This guidance focuses on markets, with the …

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150 Views
3 Downloads

Roughing filtration is a simple, efficient and chemical free water treatment method for turbidity removal; it can be used as a pre-treatment method prior to slow sand filters or disinfection with chlorine. The main disadvantage of roughing filtration for use in emergency situations is that it uses gravel as a filter medium. Gravel may be unavailable or difficult to transport because of its …

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150 Views
3 Downloads

It is always better to use water from a clean source that’s stored in a safe way. However, this is not always possible, especially in an emergency. Something may have made the source unclean or unusable. Or a population may
not have access to clean containers or practice good hygiene behaviour. One approach to this problem is treating water at the household level. This is often a temporary …

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161 Views
3 Downloads

Water is essential to life, health and dignity and access to it is a basic human right. All refugees should have assured access to adequate water of good quality, to sanitation facilities, and hygiene promotion practices. In emergencies a WASH response is critical, to reduce mortality and morbidity, and enhance refugees' protection, dignity and quality of life.

It is vital to monitor water …

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151 Views
3 Downloads

Many of the most common diseases found in traumatized communities after a disaster or emergency are related to drinking contaminated water. The contamination can be from micro-organisms (Table 1) or natural and man made chemicals (Table 2). This fact sheet concentrates on the problems caused by drinking water contaminated by micro-organisms as these are by far the most common and can be reduced …

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186 Views
3 Downloads

The Multi-Cluster/Sector Initial Rapid Assessment (MIRA) is a joint needs assessment tool that can be used in sudden onset emergencies, including IASC System-Wide Level 3 Emergency Responses (L3 Responses). The IASC Transformative Agenda recognized the critical role of needs assessment as a basis for overall and cluster strategy development; agreed that needs assessment should be well …

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150 Views
4 Downloads

These guidelines have been designed to help those involved in the assessment of emergency water sources to collect relevant information in a systematic way, to use this information to select a source or sources and to determine the appropriate level of treatment required to make the water suitable for drinking.
The guidelines, however, are not limited to the selection and treatment of water …

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194 Views
5 Downloads

The WASH Cluster Coordination Handbook aims to assist in achieving effective coordination among WASH Cluster actors and contribute to the overall Global WASH Cluster goal of improving the predictability, timeliness, and effectiveness of a comprehensive WASH response to humanitarian crises. Developed primarily to support the role of the WASH Cluster Coordinator (WCC), the content builds on …

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0 Downloads

Cholera is on the rise with an estimated 1.4 billion people at risk in endemic countries and an estimated 3 million to 5 million cases and 100,000-120,000 deaths per year worldwide. In many endemic countries, children under 5 account for more than half of the global incidence and deaths. Cholera has remained endemic in some Asian countries for centuries, has become endemic in an increasing number …

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139 Views
2 Downloads

The purpose of Including Children with Disabilities in Humanitarian Action is to strengthen the inclusion of children and women with disabilities and their families in emergency preparedness, response and early recovery, and recovery and reconstruction. This series of booklets provides insight into the situation of children with disabilities in humanitarian contexts, highlight the ways in which …

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195 Views
3 Downloads

Flooding, earthquakes, civil unrest and other natural and man-made disasters often cause damage to hand-dug wells. This technical note sets out the actions needed to repair and rehabilitate a hand-dug well so that it can be returned to its former condition. The emergency repair and rehabilitation measures proposed are temporary and should be followed by measures for permanent rehabilitation.

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193 Views
6 Downloads

In an emergency situation, it is often necessary to quickly provide a basic water supply for the affected population. This may be because the normal systems of supply have been damaged or destroyed. The most common, immediate solution is to hire vehicles and tanks that have been used for other purposes or to retrieve collapsible tanks from an emergency store. In either case, they must be cleaned …

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Emergency water treatment approaches relying on coagulation vary from centralised modular and portable ‘‘kits’’ to ‘‘pointof-use’’ or ‘‘household’’ interventions. Typical coagulation practice in emergencies is reviewed in view of field constraints (e.g. equipment and resources) and contrasted with underlying theory and conventional water treatment procedures. Examples of …

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158 Views
4 Downloads

A summary of UNHCR water, excreta management, solid waste management, disease vector control and hygiene promotion indicators and targets for emergency and post emergency refugee settings including means of verification.

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Human rights underpin all aspects of UNHCR’s international protection work and provide a basic normative framework governing UNHCR’s protection and asistance activities, including in support to access water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services. UNHCR supports the full implementation by States of their obligations under international and human rights law as provided for, inter alia, in the …

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Humanitarian assistance and development cooperation pursue different aims and follow different principles. Their separation – while important to protect the independence of humanitarian action – has negative side effects. This paper seeks to contribute to the international debate by clarifying concepts, analyzing these effects and exploring donor strategies for addressing them.

The state …

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151 Views
2 Downloads

Contamination of drinking water by microorganisms and arsenic represents a major human health hazard in many parts of the world. An estimated 3.4 million deaths a year are attributable to waterborne diseases. Arsenic poisoning from contaminated water sources is causing a major health emergency in some countries such as Bangladesh where 35 to 77 million people are at risk.

The World Health …

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152 Views
2 Downloads

From the 24 – 28 March 2014, RedR held a pilot course for 24 WASH experts on the subject of
addressing the social, institutional and technical gaps that currently exist for water, sanitation and
hygiene provision in the urban emergency context. This document, produced as a partnership
between ALNAP and RedR, captures the key messages, lessons and experiences of both course
facilitators …

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258 Views
3 Downloads

As the quality of water can be seriously affected by a disaster or an emergency, it is best practice to disinfect all emergency water supplies. The most common way of disinfecting is with chlorine. This technical note explains why disinfection is important, why chlorine is used, how it works, how to test for its presence and where and when to test.

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219 Views
2 Downloads

Water tankering (also known as water trucking) can be a rapid means of transporting water to areas in need during the initial phase of an emergency. Tankering operations, however, are expensive and relatively time-consuming to administer. This technical note considers key issues relating to the effective and efficient use of tankers during an emergency.

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172 Views
1 Downloads

The promotion and uptake of effective handwashing practices are critical in ensuring the health of populations affected by emergencies and humanitarian crises. Along with general public health benefits, handwashing can reduce the risk of diarrhoeal disease by up to 50% (Curtis and Cairncross, 2003; Fewtrell et al., 2005; Luby et al., 2005). Handwashing with soap is recognised as an easy, …

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UNICEF was part of the front-line response to the 2018 floods and their devastating consequences in the Indian State of Kerala. UNICEF’s work focussed on supporting WASH services and equipment in affected communities. UNICEF, with the support of national and regional-level administrations, local non-governmental organisations (NGOs), community-level organisations as well as national and local …

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242 Views
15 Downloads

The Plus Codes are a unique solution, a digital address given to every location on earth. Shelter Associates and UNICEF partnered to map social and basic services of the slum settlements with unique location codes. This location code can be used on Google Maps and will allow slum residents to access services such as postal, emergency services, gas cylinders and other online services. In addition …

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1468 Views
113 Downloads

El coronavirus COVID-19 está causando estragos en la economía y los sistemas de salud a nivel global, sin embargo existen esfuerzos de diferentes organizaciones que dan frutos en el intento de contener esta emergencia internacional que ya fue declarada como pandemia.

¿Como podemos influir en el comportamiento de las personas? ¿Qué buenas prácticas se pueden aplicar para proteger al …

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775 Views
41 Downloads

In Uganda approximately 86% of South Sudanese refugee arrivals are women and children (UNHCR, 2017a). Globally, girls and women often lack the ability to manage their menstruation with dignity due to lack of adequate and private facilities, safe, acceptable and accessible menstrual health products and knowledge, which can be further exacerbated during conflict and displacement. Menstrual health …

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1739 Views
82 Downloads

Sphere and its partner standards can guide our response. In situations of insecurity with the danger of misinformation and stigmatisation, it is important to understand and apply the most important and basic principles and actions to help limit the spread of the virus. There are tools from the humanitarian sector that can directly support your COVID-19 response. The sector has been gathering …

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790 Views
44 Downloads

With increased urbanization and regulatory scrutiny, the ability of humanitarian agencies to use the simple pit latrine to safely manage human waste in emergencies will decline. When a latrine is not suitable, the response options become exponentially more complicated. Different toilets must be constructed. The contents must then be removed and treated. This is as complicated and expensive as it …

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578 Views
18 Downloads

The 9th Emergency Environmental Health Forum took place from 18th -19th 2019 in Geneva, Switzerland. It brought together water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) experts. The forum provided an opportunity to exchange recent field experiences and explore innovative approaches amongst over 110 attendees and discuss ways for future action and interventions for WASH in emergencies.

EEHF 2019 …

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1973 Views
143 Downloads

On behalf of Oxfam, Arup have conducted a technical comparison study on Faecal Sludge Management at the Rohingya camps close to Cox's Bazar (CXB), Bangladesh. The aim of the study is to draw conclusions on best practice FSM for disaster relief, from evidence gathered through practical experience. The study used existing available data to inform the analysis and in many cases these datasets are …

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614 Views
45 Downloads

This compendium presents a range of technical options relating for collection, transport, treatment and disposal of fecal sludge in an emergency . It should be used as a guide to identify possible solutions for specific emergency situations and contexts. The final choice of options may need to combine different approaches and technologies and will depend on the phase of the emergency.

Each …

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1709 Views
156 Downloads

Urban population growth in many developing countries outpaces gains in improved sanitation access and services. In such circumstances, the traditional approach to urban sanitation, premised on extending sewerage networks and building wastewater treatment (WWT) plants, will not be sufficient to deliver citywide sanitation services for all. Alternative approaches are needed to deliver adequate and …

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1457 Views
163 Downloads

The WASH Innovation Catalogue is divided into thematic sections, each introduced through a short summary of the problem drawing on our 2013 Gap Analysis on Emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion and subsequent Problem Exploration Reports. Many of the innovations featured have been supported through our targeted Funding Challenges which directly responded to the priority problems …

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1396 Views
49 Downloads

WHO and UNICEF, working with the Global Task Team for monitoring WASH in health care facilities (HCF), have developed a set of core questions and indicators for WASH in HCF, in support of monitoring WASH in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The indicators include definitions for basic water, sanitation, hand hygiene, health care waste management, and environmental cleaning services. …

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0 Downloads

WEDC conference papers are an important source for learning about WASH innovations and lessons learned in the field and more than 150 papers were accepted for the 2018 WEDC conference.

Below are titles of the Emergency WASH papers (for the link see below):

- Designing evidence-based and context-specific hygiene programs in emergencies: could there be an app for that?
- Shedding light on …

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1026 Views
79 Downloads

WHO’s 13th General Programme of Work (GPW) 2019–2023 describes how the Organization’s work will contribute to the health of three billion: one billion becoming “healthier populations” through multisectoral actions and addressing environmental risk factors and health determinants; one billion benefiting from better emergency preparedness and response; and one billion with universal …

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795 Views
67 Downloads

There are increasing numbers of people affected by natural disasters, disease outbreaks, and conflict. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are used in nearly all emergency responses to help reduce disease risk. However, there is a lack of summarized evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of these interventions. We conducted a systematic review of the published and grey …

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805 Views
2 Downloads

UNICEF Syria Crisis Situation Report - 2017 Humanitarian Results
- The conflict in Syria continues to drive the largest refugee crisis in the world, with 5.4 million Syrian refugees registered in the region. Nearly half (48%) are children. About 92% of Syrian refugees live in host communities in very precarious living conditions.
- In line with the No Lost Generation Initiative, UNICEF …

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935 Views
36 Downloads

Several major donors are now looking for “value for money” in all WaSH emergency programmes. Therefore in order to justify the cost of Oxfam’s selected latrine design not only should initial construction cost be considered but also the on- going operation & maintenance costs to ensure that we are providing “value for money” in phase of emergency and the long run.

In saying this, …

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775 Views
23 Downloads

The Event Report of 2018’s Emergency Environmental Health Forum, which took place in Berlin, summarises all the presentations, keynote speeches, panel discussions and recent key findings from practice and academia. New research and innovations in the sanitation sector were presented and approaches elaborated that aim at bridging knowledge silos between WASH and other humanitarian sectors. The …

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1086 Views
0 Downloads

Oxfam in Bangladesh implemented an iinovative approach in emergency response through WASH-related market interventions using three models: mobile money transfer, debit card and pre-paid card.

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3614 Views
261 Downloads

The 8th Emergency Environmental Health Forum (EEHF) event was hosted by the German WASH Network in close collaboration with the Secretariat of the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) at GIZ. The aim of the 2018 EEHF is:
- To share new research and learning
- To discuss new approaches and innovation in the sector
- To bridge silos between WASH and other humanitarian sectors
- To identify …

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933 Views
50 Downloads

In November of 2013, Typhoon Haiyan struck the Eastern Visayas region of the Philippines devastating homes and families in its path. The response by the government and international community was swift as shelter kits were distributed and “bunkhouse-style” temporary housing built for displaced persons. As these needs were met, new problems emerged, among them was how to properly manage the …

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811 Views
10 Downloads

This issue of Frontiers of CLTS draws on the experiences of relief and development agencies which have facilitated CLTS in post-emergency and FCAS contexts. Its purpose is to contribute to understanding, and distil learning and guidance around the application of CLTS in these situations. It explores the question: How, when, and in what circumstances can a CLTSstyle process of analysis, action, …

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2264 Views
146 Downloads

This research aims to contribute a small part towards larger efforts building credible evidence and increasing understanding of the current proven solutions in the emergency context through two components. The first component aims to investigate and compile what options have been proven for applications in the emergency context. The second component aims to understand what are the driving forces …

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1365 Views
4 Downloads

This review aimed to get a better understanding of the extent and effectiveness of non-food item (NFI) distributions in Oxfam programmes, in order to develop recommendations for programme policy and guidance to maximize the impact of NFI distributions or alternatives in future responses. Documentation relating to 15 recent WASH responses was examined and key informant interviews were conducted …

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720 Views
28 Downloads

The 2-days workshop "Identifying gaps in emergency sanitation - Design of new kits to increase effectiveness in emergencies" took place in Stoutenburg, the Netherlands from 22-23 Feb 2011.

As a response to insufficient sanitation solutions deployed in the emergency situations, emergency and sanitation practitioners from different key organisations came together in Stoutenburg to discuss on how …

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6042 Views
751 Downloads

Appropriate and adequate sanitation solutions are crucial for the protection of human health in emergencies. In recent years there has been an increasing number of sanitation innovations, appropriate for a variety of humanitarian contexts and a stronger sector focus on the entire sanitation service chain (from the toilet via collection and conveyance to the final treatment and safe disposal …

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1139 Views
39 Downloads

High-level experts from the sanitation and nutrition sector gathered together in the headquarter of Germany’s international broadcaster Deutsche Welle, Bonn for the WASH and Nutrition Forum on November 11th and 12th to discuss strategies for integrating WASH and nutrition programming in development and humanitarian contexts.

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664 Views
7 Downloads

This document provides guidance for practitioners on conducting market analysis before the onset of an anticipated crisis using an adaptation of existing post-crisis market assessment tools. Recommendations stemming from this analysis could be used to inform preparedness and DRR programming decision making as well as future emergency responses. This guidance focuses on markets, with the objective …

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734 Views
5 Downloads

Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis (EMMA) is a set of tools (this toolkit) and guidance notes (the reference manual on CD-ROM). It encourages and assists front-line humanitarian staff in sudden-onset emergencies to better understand, accommodate, and make use of market systems. It does not offer a simplistic blue-print for action. However, EMMA does provide accessible, relevant guidance to …

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1180 Views
41 Downloads

The toolkit was designed to support a range of humanitarian actors involved in the planning and delivery of emergency responses. The guidance is therefore aimed to support 1) program staff directly delivering services; 2) program supervisors and country-level staff responsible for designing, coordinating and monitoring field activities, and 3) technical staff, focused on providing technical …

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917 Views
12 Downloads

UNICEF currently provides strategic technical support and guidance, surge capacity, training, supplies and logistical support for cholera and diarrhoeal disease outbreak prevention, preparedness and response worldwide. Its multi-sector approach – health, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), nutrition, education, protection and other sectors as well as services for emergency operations and …

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801 Views
14 Downloads

Effective drainage is important in emergencies when there is a risk of flooding or there is a risk of poor environmental health conditions developing from standing water, muddy conditions, or erosion. It would not usually be the first priority in the initial stages of an emergency, but should be considered after the immediate water, sanitation and hygiene needs have been met. Sites which have …

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1035 Views
15 Downloads

Providing safe excreta collection and disposal in emergency situations has remained one of the most urgent priorities in the disaster relief effort. This is because of the high risk to human health that exposed and unsanitized human excreta pose. With an increase in the frequency and intensity of natural disasters in recent years, humanitarian aid and related organisations worldwide are currently …

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963 Views
23 Downloads

In an emergency situation, the collection, treatment and disposal of the human excreta and waste in a safe way is one of the biggest challenges to face, regardless the type of disaster. When it comes to faecal sludge management, the traditional desludging methods can often not be appropriate in an acute emergency phase. Consequently, relief organisations aim to apply new and simple approaches and …

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1180 Views
19 Downloads

In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h …

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789 Views
5 Downloads

Within S(P)EEDKITS, workpackage WP3- “watsan” (water and sanitation) focuses on the development of flexible sanitation solutions suited for emergency cases and on low cost water kits that help to generate, transport and store (potable) water. Focus in both domains is on the easy deployment of the kits. This document reports on the prototypes for the various watsan kits and the outcome of the …

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879 Views
19 Downloads

Pit latrine linings for emergency sanitation facilities require different performance criteria from those for pits used in longer-term development work. Various international initiatives are currently under way to develop new methods of supporting the pits used for latrines in emergencies, but before a solution can be found, the problem needs to be defined. Current field guidance lacks the level …

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971 Views
14 Downloads

Perceptions of what constitutes an ‘emergency’ vary between personnel and between organisations. Generally, an emergency may be considered to be the result of a man-made and/or natural disaster, whereby there is a serious, often sudden, threat to the health of the affected community which has great difficulty in coping without external assistance.

This book has been written to help all …

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1827 Views
62 Downloads

Approximately 360,000 Syrian refugees have found shelter in some 5,000 informal tented settlements in Lebanon’s Bekaa Valley resulting from the refugee crisis in Syria.
Seven years into the Syria crisis, the context has changed from emergency to a transitional stabilization phase.
Many humanitarian agencies have provided WASH services to the refugees, however a significant share of the …

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3632 Views
298 Downloads

An overview of the partnership between Oxfam and Lifebuoy that brings together Oxfam’s humanitarian and public health response experience and Lifebuoy’s behaviour change and communications expertise to demonstrate the positive difference a public-private sector partnership can make in promoting health in vulnerable populations.

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1958 Views
156 Downloads

Medium- and long-term planning for an adequate and safe supply of drinking-water should be set in the context of growing external uncertainties arising from changes in the climate and environment. The water safety plan (WSP) process offers a systematic framework to manage these risks by considering the implications of climate variability and change.

This document provides guidance on how …

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1748 Views
12 Downloads

Syrian refugees living in informal tented settlements (ITS) are in an especially difficult position, being at the
back of the proverbial queue for public water and other unregulated water sources. To alleviate the problem
of water sourcing for refugees, humanitarian aid agencies have been delivering water by trucks. While this
has ensured Syrians have adequate and, importantly, …

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Monitoring, evaluation, accountability and learning was identified as a gap by the Global WaSH Cluster’s technical working group in WASH markets. More evidence is needed to prove or disprove assumptions and perceptions around effectiveness and efficiency of programme delivery and contribution of the responses towards market recovery.

In order to enable comparative analysis between different …

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1079 Views
23 Downloads

La présente stratégie régionale mise à jour en 2015 a été lancée en 2012 face à la crise nutritionnelle et alimentaire au Sahel, révisée lors du processus de consultation en 2014, elle reste une orientation intersectorielle adaptable aux spécificités nationales et locales de chaque pays.

French title: Stratégie - Groupe Régional WASH, Afrique l'Ouest et Centrale

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8286 Views
278 Downloads

During the immediate phase of an emergency in an urban context, the implementation of sanitation programmes takes a long time to provide suitable and sufficient facilities for the affected population.

While the emergency response for drinking water programmes has been improved with the design of standardised, rapid deployment kits, sanitation programmes in urban areas are limited to very few …

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7461 Views
176 Downloads

The emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion (WASH) gap analysis project was funded by The Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF), a program managed by Enhancing Learning and Research for Humanitarian Assistance (ELRHA) in partnership with the Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Action (ALNAP), and is a component of a larger initiative to identify and …

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3311 Views
76 Downloads

From the 24 – 28 March 2014, RedR held a pilot course for 24 WASH experts on the subject of addressing the social, institutional and technical gaps that currently exist for water, sanitation and hygiene provision in the urban emergency context.

This document, produced as a partnership between ALNAP and RedR, captures the key messages, lessons and experiences of both course facilitators and …

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4669 Views
227 Downloads

This guide presents a toilet system that you can do yourself without relying on a coordinated and timely response by someone else. This system served after earthquakes destroyed sanitation systems in Haiti and New Zealand. This guide is for planning ahead and preparing kits, whether for yourself, your household, your apartment building, or your block. This flexible system is built around …

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3160 Views
30 Downloads

Resource recovery is important to consider before choosing a method for faecal sludge treatment and management, to ensure technologies are adequately and appropriately designed to produce resource recovery products. The workshop covered a wide range of resource recovery opportunities from faecal sludge including composting, vermicomposting, protein, fodder and plants, building materials and …

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The Third International Faecal Sludge Management Conference was held in Hanoi from the 18th to the 21st of January 2015. More than 700 delegates from around the world shared ideas and discussed challenges and opportunities in on-site sanitation.

Below you find the list of papers in chronological order by day (Day 1-3) and room (room 1-3 ). In order to search by author, simply press "Ctrl+F" …

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6207 Views
350 Downloads

Over 500 million people in the world are disabled, the majority of whom live in poverty in low-income communities. A major contributing factor to the poverty of disabled people is their lack of access to sanitation and safe water. The Millennium Development Goals of poverty reduction, health and access to safe water and sanitation will be difficult to achieve equitably without addressing the …

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4251 Views
182 Downloads

This paper aims to provide some practical guidance on how water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programmes can be more nutrition-sensitive and how nutrition programmes can incorporate more WASH aspects. It should be useful for all project staff working in nutrition and WASH programmes when WASH and/or a nutrition programme are in operation.

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4362 Views
106 Downloads

The Emergency Sanitation Project (ESP) aims to increase the global understanding of current and future emergency sanitation solutions and to propose new concepts and modular technologies for safe excreta disposal and hygiene in emergency settings that are applicable in a variety of situations and contexts.

This report summarizes progress of the ESP’s work funded by the US Office for Foreign …

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78 Downloads

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Emergency camp’s sanitation infrastructure is often inadequate and the risks to people’s health become extreme. Governments, NGOs and Humanitarian organisations are fully aware of these problems and the fact that the basic pit latrine design has not been improved upon in decades which aggravated those problems even more.
This is especially applicable for camps packed with tens of thousands …

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4415 Views
72 Downloads

The presentation concludes that "Portaloo" is replicable for a short term period, if a treatment plant is available for safe disposal of the sludge and if the equipment is available in country. It should not also put focus on monitoring the trucks and “hot line” or complain mechanism for the users. The presentation was held at the WECD conference July 2011 in Loughborough, England.

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