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Sanitation Library

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2 Downloads

Improvements to sanitation and hygiene are known to reduce the transmission of the poliovirus. This field note reports the experience of implementing Afghan Context Community Led Total Sanitation (AC-CLTS) in an urban context within an integrated polio eradication project targeted to high-risk polio districts. The Ministry of Public Health, provincial Department of Public Health and UNICEF …

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270 Views
1 Downloads

This evaluation examines a broad national programme of ‘community-led total sanitation’ (CLTS) style sanitation interventions conducted in Timor-Leste by the government, NGOs and multi-lateral and bi-lateral stakeholders from 2012 to 2020. It was commissioned by the Government of Timor-Leste (GoTL) Ministry of Health (MoH) in collaboration with UNICEF Timor-Leste. The evaluation was conducted …

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122 Views
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One of the key programming approaches adopted in UNICEF’s Strategy for WASH (2016-2030) is to build sustainable markets for sanitation goods and services. Market-based sanitation (MBS) is defined as a development approach to improve sanitation in a country by building the sanitation market of goods and services for which the customer makes a full or partial monetary contribution (with savings …

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It is clear that there is a need for more effective strategies to increase sanitation coverage in rural areas, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. One such strategy which is expanding in the sub-continent is community-led total sanitation (CLTS). However, CLTS has been criticized for 'shaming' communities.

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A case study documenting experiences and lessons from Kenya Red Cross Society Guidance for the future of integrated community-based water and sanitation software programming.

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188 Views
1 Downloads

In 2015, after a decade of approaching rural sanitation by subsidizing latrine construction with minimal results, the Government of Senegal launched a new strategy for rural sanitation defined by a transfer of responsibility for the acquisition of sanitation services to communities. This created an opportunity for market-based approaches for increased sanitation outcomes. In line with this …

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Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is a revolutionary idea and an inspiring practice. The enthusiasm of its many adherents in government and civil society is understandable. This desk review examines the refereed and gray literature on CLTS, with the central objective of assessing the knowledge base on best practices and identifying evidence gaps to inform the project’s research agenda (to …

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There has been an interesting debate going on about the elements of shame, fear and disgust used during CLTS triggering session. The debate has been between those who believe that the element of shame as applied during a CLTS trigger is unethical as it amounts to degrading and embarrassing the community, and those who believe that the element of shame is actually positive, and that it indeed …

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111 Views
4 Downloads

World Health Organization data on the burden of disease shows that approximately 3.1% of deaths (1.7 million) and 3.7% (54.2 million) of disability-adjusted-life-years (DALYs) worldwide are attributable to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene. In Africa and developing countries in South East Asia 4-8% of all disease burdens are attributable to poor hygiene and sanitation. Over 99.8% of all deaths …

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141 Views
1 Downloads

PHAST shares the same participatory learning principles as CLTS, which aim at gaining self-esteem, believing in people‟s ability to solve basic problems with their own resources. PHAST and CLTS also have in common the technical scope in their original conception, since both have been designed to focus on sanitation issues in rural communities. However, PHAST in Red Cross / Red Crescent has been …

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138 Views
3 Downloads

Since 2000 a number of community-driven sanitation approaches have emerged that counter a historical trend to subsidise the provision of latrines to the poor. This study reports on a set of findings and conclusions concerning the effectiveness and sustainability of two such approaches operating in Zimbabwe, the community health club (CHC) approach and community-led total sanitation (CLTS). …

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Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called “triggering.” This qualitative study explored community members' and …

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135 Views
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Evidence and comments suggest that CLTS has been successful in some cases in Africa, however it is difficult to find strong data to support this.
Claims to have achieved Open Defecation Free (ODF) status have often been exaggerated and estimates of numbers of ODF communities inflated. Verification systems need to be improved. Another problem is that ODF is an absolute condition, important as a …

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142 Views
2 Downloads

During more than 20 years of civil conflict in both Somalia and South Sudan, sanitation interventions were mostly limited to construction of emergency latrines for affected populations or education on sanitation and hygiene, using the Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) approach, followed by fully subsidised latrine programmes for selected households.
There is little …

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249 Views
1 Downloads

A practical guide for the Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) supported programme teams and Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) facilitators on how to collect information related to Equality and Non-Discrimination (EQND) at community level, and in particular to learn from people who may be disadvantaged. This guide provides insights into the key ethics principles for information gathering and …

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365 Views
6 Downloads

The Equality and Non-discrimination (EQND) and Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Handbook provides practical guidance for ensuring that behaviour change interventions leave no one behind. Drawing on experience from across the sector, this handbook is specifically targeted towards those implementing or supervising CLTS interventions at the community level. Key features include a summary of …

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480 Views
9 Downloads

‘Do-no-harm’ means taking every precaution to ensure people will not be adversely impacted by the programme, including inadvertently. Whilst it is understood that ‘community problem, community solution’ should remain core to community-led approaches, facilitators also have an ethical obligation to step in if initiatives pose a risk to the rights, dignity or well-being of people who may be …

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387 Views
4 Downloads

Sustainable Development Goal 6 for water and sanitation calls for the realization of safely managed services (SMSS) for everyone by 2030. While there has been significant research and implementation to improve the sanitation service chain in urban settings, little guidance is available on how to achieve and sustain SMSS in rural contexts. In 2019, WSSCC commissioned this study to examine to what …

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703 Views
43 Downloads

India faces the twin challenges of having the most number of people in the world defecating in the open and also for the burgeoning crisis of untreated fecal waste that is contaminating our surface and ground water creating an imminent health crisis. The latest Swachhta Stats Report1 shows an encouraging 45% rural sanitation coverage by mid 2015 as against the 31% coverage in 2010 Census. Both …

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635 Views
12 Downloads

A well-facilitated Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) programme that pro-actively considers and involves people who might be disadvantaged has been shown to have many benefits. A lack of this can and will often have negative impacts and make programmes and ODF unsustainable. This issue of Frontiers of CLTS looks at who should be considered potentially disadvantaged, how they can effectively …

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938 Views
15 Downloads

Achievement of adequate and equitable access to sanitation for all, and an end to open defecation, requires that special attention is given toward disadvantaged groups. It has become apparent that the benefits of conventional rural sanitation programming and service delivery are often not spread equally, and risk leaving disadvantaged groups behind. This issue of Frontiers of CLTS examines the …

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796 Views
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In this library entry we have grouped together up to five documents that we think are important "first reading" materials for anyone wishing to obtain a quick overview of this topic. For more details, please see the external links to the discussion forum below.

The documents listed in this library entry in reverse chronological order already exist as individual library entries but have been …

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704 Views
23 Downloads

The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) established the Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) in 2008. Since then, it has supported sanitation at scale through collective behaviour change in 13 countries in Africa and Asia. In 2016, it initiated a learning process to identify and analyse key factors impacting on equality and non-discrimination (EQND) within the 13 GSF-supported …

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710 Views
21 Downloads

The Equality and Non-discrimination (EQND) and Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Handbook provides practical guidance for ensuring that behaviour change interventions leave no one behind. Drawing on experience from across the sector, this handbook is specifically targeted towards those implementing or supervising CLTS interventions at the community level. Key features include a summary of …

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The 6th International Dry Toilet Conference 2018 was held in Tampere, Finland on 22nd – 24th August 2018. The theme of the conference was Dry Toilet Goes Circular with a focus on Cooperation, Co-creation and Experimentation.

Please find the oral presentations and poster presentations below via the links to the page of the GlobalDry Toilet association of Finland.

***** Oral …

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1258 Views
32 Downloads

Men’s and boys’ active and positive engagement in sanitation and hygiene (S&H) means improving sustainable outcomes, as well as increasing the potential for redistribution of unequal domestic and care responsibilities from women to men. Discussions around gender in S&H (and elsewhere) often focus on the roles, positions or impacts on women and girls, however this issue of Frontiers of CLTS …

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Over half the world’s population now lives in urban areas and a large proportion of them lives without improved sanitation. Efforts to tackle open defecation in rural areas has been led by the Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) movement. But how can the community mobilization techniques of CLTS be adapted to the more complex situations and transient populations in urban areas? How can …

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This handbook has been prepared to guide the community health motivators, health and sanitation workers as well as community leaders to adopt and facilitate the CLTS approach in communities where sanitation programmes are being implemented. It is believed that this will help the concerned individuals to get a clear concept of CLTS and guide them to adopt its methods at the community level.

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The Handbook on CLTS describes the basics of CLTS facilitation and is essential and useful material for the field facilitators. This guideline, on the other hand, is written with a focus to meet the requirements of the trainers of CLTS facilitators, and of future CLTS trainers who are not yet experienced CLTS facilitators. The guide can also be used by trainers who wish to train trainers of CLTS …

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This manual is meant to act as a guide for facilitators during the implementation of Community Follow-up Workshops as part of a Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) program. Information provided is based on workshops piloted in Phalombe District during the GSF Program from 2011- 2012 by Engineers Without Borders Canada (EWB) and InterAide.

The pilot was a village-level monitoring strategy …

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Since Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is our key intervention for sanitation and hygiene promotion in Malawi, it provides an excellent opportunity to facilitate hand washing behavior change. However, up till now, the “triggering tools” for achieving HWWS behavior change from CLTS have not been well known by implementers in Malawi. The purpose of this document is to outline several …

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The Solomon Islands Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Toolkit is one of the manuals developed for the Rural Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Program in the Solomon Islands. It will be used to guide CLTS Facilitators, and others working with villages, to trigger village action on taking control of sanitation and hygiene within their villages. Any organisations that are doing CLTS in …

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This training manual is meant to provide a guide for Master Trainers/Trainers of CLTS trainers and facilitators at national and sub-national levels. The manual provides step by step approach of conducting CLTS training workshops and can be adapted to suit specific situations based on target audience and their level of involvement in CLTS implementation.

The manual was reviewed and finalized at …

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This handbook has been developed from experiences with Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) since December
1999. These have been in Bangladesh, India, Cambodia, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nepal, China and Pakistan in Asia; in
Uganda, Zambia, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Kenya and Sierra Leone in Africa; in Bolivia in South America; in Yemen in the
Middle East; and in other countries. Users of this handbook …

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The heart of the program is about “triggering” or “igniting” communities to change their hygiene and sanitation habits, namely by constructing and using latrines instead of defecating in the open. In Ethiopia, CLTS was the precursor to CLTSH, a modified version that has an added hygiene component. As with its predecessor, CLTSH functions without subsidies and has as its primary goal the …

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CLTS is a new approach in Afghanistan; and all stakeholders should become familiar with how it is implemented. CLTS component has been successfully implemented in various developing nations throughout the world; however, there was an urgent need how to adapt this approach to fit the societal and cultural aspects of in Afghanistan. MRRD is pleased to have this opportunity to develop this manual …

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The Facilitator’s Manual for Small Towns CLTS Field Work is a guide for field workers who are promoting sanitation improvements at community and household levels, using the CLTS approach applied to the small towns context.

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This manual has been designed by the Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MoHS), UNICEF and GOAL to help support Natural Leaders during the pre-triggering, triggering and follow-up of CLTS communities. The following pages will give simple examples of how to carry out each stage of CLTS. The booklet is not meant to be a script to read out whilst triggering however. A good natural leader will use his …

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264 Downloads

The 8th Emergency Environmental Health Forum (EEHF) event was hosted by the German WASH Network in close collaboration with the Secretariat of the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) at GIZ. The aim of the 2018 EEHF is:
- To share new research and learning
- To discuss new approaches and innovation in the sector
- To bridge silos between WASH and other humanitarian sectors
- To identify …

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The video is a documentary about the Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach, an innovative methodology for mobilising communities to completely eliminate open defecation and take their own action to become open defecation free. It shows projects in Bangladesh and interviews with one of its pioneers Dr. Kamal Kar.

It has been produced 2008 within the BBC earth report series on …

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1684 Views
117 Downloads

The International Conference titled "Pathways towards Sustainable Sanitation in Africa" constitutes the most relevant event held under the project NETSSAF "Network for the development of Sustainable Sanitation in Africa", a Coordination Action supported by the European Union under the Sixth Framework Programme (FP6). A well prepared team organised this event successfully which was celebrated in …

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This webinar was conducted on 22 June 2015 and has been recorded in 4 parts. This video clip contains Part 1 which is introduction by Pippa Scott (Euforic Services) during the webinar 'What constitutes success for CLTS? Measuring community outcomes and behavior changes'. To watch part 2-4 please go to links below.

Speakers:
1) Ada Oko Williams, Technical Support Manager, Sanitation and …

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18 Downloads

This issue of Frontiers of CLTS shares and builds on the learning from the GSF EQND study, which examined EQND in relation to sanitation programmes being implemented at scale. It draws on existing global experience and looks at who should be considered potentially disadvantaged and how they can participate. It explores what the challenges may be if CLTS does not actively ensure that the …

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927 Views
14 Downloads

This issue of Frontiers of CLTS draws on the experiences of relief and development agencies which have facilitated CLTS in post-emergency and FCAS contexts. Its purpose is to contribute to understanding, and distil learning and guidance around the application of CLTS in these situations. It explores the question: How, when, and in what circumstances can a CLTSstyle process of analysis, action, …

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1246 Views
24 Downloads

Two ecosan workshops in Kenya, "ecosan Capacity Development Workshop" in Ugunja and "ecosan Vision workshop" in Nairobi, were organised and financed by the GTZ Program on sustainable sanitation - ecosan and the facilitating consultants Laura Kraft (freelance), Martin Wafler, Johannes Heeb (both seecon gmbh, Switzerland) and Ms. Pradnya Thakur (Ecosan Services Foundation, India). The main aim was …

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1668 Views
28 Downloads

Conference Themes: The Action Exchange

Unclogging the Blockages is about action. The action exchange was organized according to several themes (several are listed below) with experts from each of these subject areas presenting and leading small group discussions with their peers on what are the main challenges and barriers for moving forward. After these initial discussions, the challenges …

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Trainers' Guide on Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in Lao

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2492 Views
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Many low-income countries face the hefty challenge of increasing sanitation coverage, in both rural and urban areas, which demand di erent solutions. In response, governments, with support from international agencies, bilateral donors and non-government organisations, are deploying a range of programmes and policies to accelerate progress towards the new global goals. Community-led total …

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3034 Views
62 Downloads

Describing the landscape of sustainability of CLTS and sanitation with reference to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and through examples from Africa and Asia, the book captures a range of experiences and innovations from a broad range of institutions and actors within the WASH sector, and attempts to make recommendations and practical suggestions for policy and practice for …

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2845 Views
24 Downloads

The CLTS Knowledge Hub at the Institute of Development Studies, with the help of Plan International Ethiopia, convened a three day workshop in Addis Ababa. The workshop titled ‘Using a CLTS approach in peri-urban and urban environments’ brought together people who had been involved in urban CLTS programmes to share their varied experiences and discuss what added value a CLTS approach can …

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2764 Views
15 Downloads

Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory approach to addressing open defecation that has demonstrated success in previous studies, yet there is no research on how implementation arrangements and context change effectiveness. We used a quasi-experimental study design to compare two interventions in Ethiopia: conventional CLTS in which health workers and local leaders provided …

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3222 Views
29 Downloads

The partial or total non-use of toilets, with some or all in a household defecating in the open, is a growing concern. Although all households may have a toilet, communities cannot remain open defecation free unless they are always used by everyone. This is not just an issue of maintenance and accessibility but also of social norms, mind-sets, and cultural preferences. The problem is widespread …

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3031 Views
25 Downloads

Lack of sanitation impacts on the rights to life and health, the right to education (through loss in school days, particularly for girls) and the right to dignity (UNRIC nd). The purpose of this issue of Frontiers of CLTS is to examine
Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in light of human rights: Does CLTS contribute to realising the right to sanitation and other inter-related rights? Are the …

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3012 Views
55 Downloads

Most adolescent girls and women menstruate. This means that for five to seven days each month they bleed through their vagina. This monthly bleeding is often accompanied by abdominal cramps, headaches, mood changes and general lethargy all of which can be exacerbated by social stigma, myths and a lack of requisite infrastructure to manage menstruation safely, privately and hygienically. The …

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2567 Views
19 Downloads

This issue of Frontiers of CLTS brings together lessons on violence related to sanitation and hygiene and examples of good practice from a range of contexts including urban and humanitarian as well as rural. It interprets these lessons to propose good practice for CLTS practitioners in how they can contribute to reducing vulnerabilities to violence through the ways they work.

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3610 Views
54 Downloads

The Open Defecation Free (ODF) Malawi 2015 Strategy and National Hand Washing Campaign have been contributing to an increased focus on handwashing with soap (HWWS) in Malawi.1 This is a very positive development!

Some studies estimate that washing hands with soap can reduce diarrhoeal disease rates by up to 50 per cent and respiratory disease rates by up to 25 per cent. This makes handwashing …

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4881 Views
299 Downloads

Despite continuous financial efforts to improve the conditions in the country, Tanzania was off track to meet both the MDGs target on water and sanitation and the national MKUKUTA goals. Whilst the country reached a high level of latrine coverage (90%) during the Mtu ni Afya campaign of the 1970s, very little progress has been made since then to move the population up the sanitation ladder, from …

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2488 Views
25 Downloads

IDS has been working in support of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) since its beginnings. CLTS has now become an international movement for which IDS is the recognised knowledge hub. The Knowledge Hub is dedicated to understanding the on-the-ground realities of CLTS practice and to learn about, share and promote good practices, ideas and innovations that lead to sustainability and scale. We …

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8247 Views
190 Downloads

The emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion (WASH) gap analysis project was funded by The Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF), a program managed by Enhancing Learning and Research for Humanitarian Assistance (ELRHA) in partnership with the Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Action (ALNAP), and is a component of a larger initiative to identify and …

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5949 Views
539 Downloads

WSP’s Scaling Up Rural Sanitation is working with governments and the local private sector to develop the knowledge needed to scale up rural sanitation for the poor. The programmatic approach combines Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), behaviour change communication, and sanitation marketing to generate sanitation demand and build up the supply of sanitation products and services at scale. …

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8947 Views
163 Downloads

The article by Fiona Budge asserts that ‘Shit’ is still a highly sensitive topic across all cultures, which has led to diverse problems establishing programmes that aim to prevent Open Defecation. On basis of a case study in Nepal and theories of disgust this publication reflects on the reasons for the taboo state of the topic and possible solutions.

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232 Downloads

This library entry contains documents for a grant that Maria Laura Alzua is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Goal:
to improve the evidence of the effectiveness of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs on health and behavioral outcomes

Purpose (copied from Trial description: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01900912):

Behavioral change is a …

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This report covers the main findings of the impact evaluation conducted of a communityled total sanitation (CLTS) campaign implemented by the government of Mali (Direction Nationale de l’Assainissement) with the support of UNICEF. We conducted a clusterrandomized controlled trial among 121 villages randomly selected from the district of Koulikoro in order to evaluate health and non-health …

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In this library entry we have grouped together up to five documents that we think are important "first reading" materials for anyone wishing to obtain a quick overview of this topic. For more details, please see the external links to the discussion forum below.

The documents listed in this library entry in reverse chronological order already exist as individual library entries but have been …

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Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

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32nd SuSanA Meeting

The 32nd SuSanA meeting - the third time online - will take place on August 22nd August 2022. It is organised by the SuSanA Secretariat with support and contributions from SuSanA Partners, Members, Working Groups and Regional Chapters. 

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Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

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The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:

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The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

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Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

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Use the map or the search tool to access the most relevant information and knowledge products for your region or country. This includes relevant resources, events, partners or projects.

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Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

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We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

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