Cookie tracking notice
Are we allowed to crumble with cookies and anonymous tracking?

We use cookies on our website. Some of them are essential for the operation of the site (so called session cookies), while others help us to improve this site and the user experience (tracking cookies). We use the application Matomo and the external service etracker to analyze your behavior on our website anonymously. Because we value your privacy, we are here with asking your permission to use the following technologies. You can change your settings any time via this link or the menu item in footer menu. For more information visit our Data Policy

Toward a hygienic environment for infants and young children - Limiting early exposures to support long-term health and well-being

USAID (2022)

Published in: 2022
Pages: 51



Uploaded by:
SuSanA Admin


Direct ingestion of animal and human feces in soil as well as exploratory mouthing by infants and young children remain underemphasized pathways of fecal pathogen exposure impacting child health and growth, as highlighted in the 2018 Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Partnerships and Learning for Sustainability Program (WASHPaLS) desk review, “Toward a Hygienic Environment for Infants and Young Children.”

For decades the seminal “F-diagram” has been used to depict routes of pathogen transmission from human feces to a new host via fluids, fields (floors, earth, dirt), flies, fingers, fomites (surfaces), and food. The classical F-diagram focuses exclusively on human excreta, tracing transmission of pathogens through different exposure routes; culminating in diarrheal morbidity and mortality. Traditional water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions to disrupt transmission via these pathways have conventionally focused on increasing access to improved water, hand hygiene and sanitation measures. When focusing specifically on infants and young children (IYC), it is increasingly clear this framework inadequately presents the comprehensive set of causal pathways and interventions to disrupt them. This may partially explain why achieving widespread reductions in childhood infections remains elusive, despite decades of nutrition and WASH interventions.

This review updates the 2018 desk review cited above, focusing on recent peer-reviewed and gray literature on behavior change innovations that address domestic animal excreta in home environments (infant playpens, poultry cooping and feces management), safe disposal of infant feces, food hygiene, and improved flooring—all behavior-product combinations with the potential to protect IYC. The evidence does not yet point clearly to best practice, but implications for implementation programming are discussed, including alignment with USAID WASH and development technical briefs on Social and Behavior Change for WASH and WASH and its Links to Nutrition.

Bibliographic information

USAID (2022). Toward a hygienic environment for infants and young children - Limiting early exposures to support long-term health and well-being. USAID

Filter tags



Toward a hygienic environment for infants and young children

Format: pdf file
Size: 1.15 MB

Share this page on    

Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners  currently 400 partners

Networks Circle


Latest SuSanA Blog Articles

  • 26-03-2024Alice Brandt ,Mascha Kaddori:
    Let’s get wild: Water, sanitation and hygiene at the human-wildlife interface »
  • 21-03-2024Tabeer Riaz:
    Empowering Young Women Water Professionals in South Asia: Leading the Wave of Change »
  • 12-03-2024Beauty Mkoba:
    Unlocking the potential of African Women in STEM through mentorship »
  • 08-03-2024Gloria Mariga :
    Mentorship empowers African women to lead environmental stewardship »
  • 05-03-2024Josphine Gaicugi:
    Achieving access to adequate and equitable sanitation for all is no mean feat »
  • 01-02-2024Sanitation for Millions:
    Toilets Making the Grade® school competition – A Competition where all Participants are Winners »
  • 24-01-2024Anne Fetscher,Jörg Felmeden:
    The sustainable use of tap water (in Germany) and the power of education. An Interview with Dr.-Ing. Jörg Felmeden »

SuSanA Blog »

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »




Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Shit flow diagrams, excreta flow diagrams (304 SFDs worldwide)

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

Emersan eCompendium

Humanitarian Sanitation Hub

Sanitation Workers Knowledge and Learning Hub




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?
Forgot your username?