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The clean plan: analysing sanitation planning in India using the CWIS planning framework

Narayan, A.S., Maurer, M. and Lüthi, C. (2021)

Published in: 2021
Pages: 12

Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development

Narayan, A.S., Maurer, M. and Lüthi, C.

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Sanitation in India has received national attention for over a decade, especially with the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) making it a political priority. However, due to the lack of appropriate sanitation planning practices, there have been little long-term gains made in urban sanitation beyond the ending of open defaecation. In this paper, we analyse the key barriers to sanitation planning, in India, in the context of the emerging paradigm of Citywide Inclusive Sanitation (CWIS). A mixed method approach of shit flow diagrams, social network analysis, policy analysis, interviews and workshops at the national, state (2) and city (4) levels was conducted. Eight factors were identified as important barriers for planning including inadequate planning capacities, lack of ownership of city sanitation plans among city governments, poor community involvement, absence of a uniform planning framework, unreliable political and financial support, overlapping jurisdictions, and scheme-based funding. The paper also proposes the CWIS Planning Framework which offers a perspective at overcoming these barriers with the recommendation of bridging top-down and bottom-up planning approaches. While there is increasingly more clarity on what CWIS means, there is little understanding on how to plan for it. Therefore, this framework provides the theoretical basis for planning with the CWIS approach.

Bibliographic information

Narayan, A.S., Maurer, M. and Lüthi, C. (2021). The clean plan: analysing sanitation planning in India using the CWIS planning framework. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development

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The clean plan: analysing sanitation planning in India using the CWIS planning framework

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