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Country-Led Formative Evaluation of Community-Led Total Sanitation in Timor-Leste (2012 – 2020)

Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and UNICEF Timor-Leste (2021)

Published in: 2021
Pages: 165

Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and UNICEF Timor-Leste

Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and UNICEF Timor-Leste

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SuSanA Admin

Partner profile:
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH


This evaluation examines a broad national programme of ‘community-led total sanitation’ (CLTS) style sanitation interventions conducted in Timor-Leste by the government, NGOs and multi-lateral and bi-lateral stakeholders from 2012 to 2020. It was commissioned by the Government of Timor-Leste (GoTL) Ministry of Health (MoH) in collaboration with UNICEF Timor-Leste. The evaluation was conducted by FH Designs between December 2019 and March 2021, a period which included a hiatus (February–November 2020) due to the global COVID-19 pandemic.

The evaluation used a mixed-methods approach to produce evidence on the results of the CLTS approach in Timor-Leste. The findings are intended to inform decision-making on potential adjustments needed in order to achieve the 2020 open defecation free (ODF) target and to ensure that ODF status is sustained.

The evaluation concluded that the implementation of CLTS-style programming in Timor-Leste, under the auspices of the MoH, has been a relevant and appropriate response to issues of open defecation and poor hand hygiene. The whole-of-sector approach to using the CLTS model and the introduction of institutional triggering has resulted in efficient, effective and sustainable change at the household level. Longer-term sustainability and progress from ODF to safely managed sanitation will require consistent public reinforcement of desired social norms. The implementation of the next stage of sanitation and hygiene programming provides the challenge of completing CLTS-style programmes alongside subsidised programs, and may require some hybridisation of CLTS style programming with Hygienic Suco programmes to achieve the aims of ODF and perhaps ‘leapfrog’ to improved sanitation, whilst still creating desired changes in social norms that are not inherent to subsidised sanitation solutions.

Bibliographic information

Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and UNICEF Timor-Leste (2021). Country-Led Formative Evaluation of Community-Led Total Sanitation in Timor-Leste (2012 – 2020). Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and UNICEF Timor-Leste

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Country-Led Formative Evaluation of Community-Led Total Sanitation in Timor-Leste (2012 – 2020)

Format: pdf file
Size: 6.22 MB

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