Cookie tracking notice
Are we allowed to crumble with cookies and anonymous tracking?

We use cookies on our website. Some of them are essential for the operation of the site (so called session cookies), while others help us to improve this site and the user experience (tracking cookies). We use the application Matomo and the external service etracker to analyze your behavior on our website anonymously. Because we value your privacy, we are here with asking your permission to use the following technologies. You can change your settings any time via this link or the menu item in footer menu. For more information visit our Data Policy

UNICEF Field Notes on Community Approaches to Total Sanitation - Learning From Five Country Programmes

UNICEF (2017)

Published in: 2017
Pages: 91



Uploaded by:
SuSanA Admin

Partner profile:
common upload


Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS) aim to achieve 100 per cent open defecation free (ODF) communities through affordable, appropriate technology and behaviour change. Some of the key principles guiding CATS are:
• An emphasis on the sustained use of sanitation facilities by every community member, rather than simply the construction of infrastructure.
• The safe disposal of infant and young children’s faeces in toilets.
• Broad engagement with diverse members of the community, including households, schools, health centres and traditional leadership structures.
• That communities lead the change process and use their own capacities to attain their objectives. Their role is central in planning and implementing improved sanitation, taking into account the needs of diverse community members, including vulnerable groups, people with disabilities, and women and girls.
• That subsidies – whether funds, hardware or other forms – should not be given directly to households. Community rewards, subsidies and incentives are acceptable only where they encourage collective action in support of total sanitation and where they facilitate the sustainable use of sanitation facilities.
• That communities are supported to determine for themselves what design and materials work best for sanitation infrastructure, rather than standards being imposed on them. External agencies provide guidance rather than regulation. Thus, households build toilets based on locally available materials using the skills of local technicians and artisans.
• A focus on building local capacities to enable sustainability. This includes the training of community facilitators and local artisans, and the encouragement of local champions for community-led programmes.
• Government participation from the outset – at the local and national levels – which helps ensure the effectiveness of CATS and the potential for scaling up.
• That CATS have the greatest impact when they integrate hygiene promotion into programme design: the definition, scope and sequencing of hygiene components should always be based on the local context.
• That CATS are an entry point for social change – and a potential catalyst for wider community mobilisation.

Bibliographic information

UNICEF (2017). UNICEF Field Notes on Community Approaches to Total Sanitation - Learning From Five Country Programmes. UNICEF

Filter tags

Case studies in other formats English Guidelines and manuals


UNICEF Field Notes on Community Approaches to Total Sanitation. Learning From Five Country Programmes

Format: pdf file
Size: 6.59 MB

Share this page on    

Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners  currently 400 partners

Networks Circle


Latest SuSanA Blog Articles

  • 05-07-2024Lourdes Valenzuela:
    Brasilia June 2024: SIRWASH Dialogues: Public Policies for Economic Accessibility to Rural Water and Sanitation Services in the Context of Latin American and Caribbean Countries »
  • 11-06-2024 Ann Thomas:
    Nature Calls – why sanitation is the logical starting point for fighting climate change »
  • 07-05-2024Jeremy Kohlitz,Kaiea Ribanataake Awira,Ngaouea Neemia:
    Can Kiritimati become a model circular economy society? Water and sanitation as potential entry points »
  • 26-03-2024Alice Brandt ,Mascha Kaddori:
    Let’s get wild: Water, sanitation and hygiene at the human-wildlife interface »
  • 21-03-2024Tabeer Riaz:
    Empowering Young Women Water Professionals in South Asia: Leading the Wave of Change »
  • 12-03-2024Beauty Mkoba:
    Unlocking the potential of African Women in STEM through mentorship »
  • 08-03-2024Gloria Mariga :
    Mentorship empowers African women to lead environmental stewardship »

SuSanA Blog »

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »




Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Shit flow diagrams, excreta flow diagrams (310 SFDs worldwide)

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

Emersan eCompendium

Humanitarian Sanitation Hub

Sanitation Workers Knowledge and Learning Hub




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?
Forgot your username?