Cookie tracking notice
Are we allowed to crumble with cookies and anonymous tracking?

We use cookies on our website. Some of them are essential for the operation of the site (so called session cookies), while others help us to improve this site and the user experience (tracking cookies). We use the application Matomo and the external service etracker to analyze your behavior on our website anonymously. Because we value your privacy, we are here with asking your permission to use the following technologies. You can change your settings any time via this link or the menu item in footer menu. For more information visit our Data Policy

Formative Research to Develop Appropriate Participatory Approaches towards Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Rural Areas

Kapur, D.; Ramisetty, M. & Barot, N. (2016)

Published in: 2016
Pages: 62

India WASH Forum

Kapur, D.; Ramisetty, M. & Barot, N.

Uploaded by:
SuSanA Admin

Partner profile:
common upload


India faces the twin challenges of having the most number of people in the world defecating in the open and also for the burgeoning crisis of untreated fecal waste that is contaminating our surface and ground water creating an imminent health crisis. The latest Swachhta Stats Report1 shows an encouraging 45% rural sanitation coverage by mid 2015 as against the 31% coverage in 2010 Census. Both motivating people to build and to use toilets is emerging as a major national priority as outlined in the Swachh Bharat Mission initiated by the Honourable Prime Minister for achieving open defecation free India by 2nd October 2019.

Additional information

Ending open defecation and behavior change to motivate people to build and use toilets is seen a rural sanitation challenge. Treatment and safe disposal of fecal waste generated from septic tanks and the partial sewerage systems in urban areas is seen as an urban sanitation challenge.

Different sanitation promotion programming approaches have been adopted worldwide by NGOs and international agencies specially, to encourage, motivate and also coercepeople to stop defecating in the open and to build and use toilets. A compendium of different Hygiene and Sanitation Software approaches was recently compiled by WSSCC2. Most Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) in WASH till date has relied on employing typical market research approach (addressing emotional, psychological, and entertainment based stimuli) in behavior change message development. Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) has emerged as a popular programming tool for community level sanitation behavior change.

Most sanitation promotion approaches are only partially successful in providing short term increases in sanitation coverage and usage. BCC messages designed as marketing interventions often fail to address deeper underlying causes of resistance behind people’s reluctance to adopt improved and safe sanitation and hygiene (or even physical barriers like water availability).

Bibliographic information

Kapur, D.; Ramisetty, M. & Barot, N. (2016). Formative Research to Develop Appropriate Participatory Approaches towards Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Rural Areas. India WASH Forum

Filter tags

Behaviour change (WG13) Case studies in other formats East Asia & Pacific English Rural


Formative Research to Develop Appropriate Participatory Approaches towards Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Rural Areas

Format: pdf file
Size: 2.63 MB

Share this page on    

Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners  currently 400 partners

Networks Circle


Latest SuSanA Blog Articles

SuSanA Blog »

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »




Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Shit flow diagrams, excreta flow diagrams (310 SFDs worldwide)

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

Emersan eCompendium

Humanitarian Sanitation Hub

Sanitation Workers Knowledge and Learning Hub




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?
Forgot your username?