Ocean Health Index 2018: Methods

Halpern, B. S., Longo, C., Hardy, D., McLead, K. L., Samhouri, J. F., Katona, S. K., et al. (2012)

Published in: 2012
Pages: 86

Nature. 2012;488: 615–620. doi:10.1038/nature11397

Halpern, B. S., Longo, C., Hardy, D., McLead, K. L., Samhouri, J. F., Katona, S. K., et al.

Uploaded by:
SuSanA Admin

Partner profile:
common upload


The OHI is considered a composite indicator because it combines many indicators into a comprehensive framework describing ocean health. This is in contrast to focusing on individual indicators, such as phosphate levels, sedimentation, biodiversity, etc. Individual indicators are important, but they provide limited information when it comes to evaluating how well an overall ecosystem is functioning. Another shortcoming of individual indicators is that they do not directly describe what we actually care about, and consequently, focusing on them can hinder communication. For example, most people do not directly care about nutrient pollution, however, we do care about its effects on the ocean’s ability to provide recreation and food.

Without an overall framework to evaluate indicators, certain indicators may be overemphasized relative to their true importance due to researcher bias (most researchers believe their area of study is the most important), trends in research (what is currently considered a hot topic and is funded), and availability of data (e.g., some data is easier to collect). A model that combines multiple indicators will inevitably have flaws, but at least we know which variables are included and how they are weighted.

Bibliographic information

Halpern, B. S., Longo, C., Hardy, D., McLead, K. L., Samhouri, J. F., Katona, S. K., et al. (2012). Ocean Health Index 2018: Methods. Nature. 2012;488: 615–620. doi:10.1038/nature11397

Filter tags

English Factsheets and policy briefs


Ocean Health Index 2018: Methods

Format: pdf file
Size: 2.55 MB

Share this page on    

Sanitation events

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »

Latest tweets mentioning SuSanA

Tweets mentioning SuSanA »

30th SuSanA meeting

The 30th SuSanA meeting - the first virtual of its kind - willl take place from August 17th to August 28th 2020. It is organised by the SuSana Secretariat with support and contributions from SuSanA Partners, Members, Working Groups and Regional Chapters.

Click here to get to the Meeting Page!

SuSanA meetings





Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Regional chapters

Use the map or the search tool to access the most relevant information and knowledge products for your region or country. This includes relevant resources, events, partners or projects.

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs), excreta flow diagrams

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?