Cookie tracking notice
Are we allowed to crumble with cookies and anonymous tracking?

We use cookies on our website. Some of them are essential for the operation of the site (so called session cookies), while others help us to improve this site and the user experience (tracking cookies). We use the application Matomo and the external service etracker to analyze your behavior on our website anonymously. Because we value your privacy, we are here with asking your permission to use the following technologies. You can change your settings any time via this link or the menu item in footer menu. For more information visit our Data Policy

Duckweed Aquaculture - Potentials, Possibilities and Limitations for Combined Wastewater Treatment and Animal Feed Production in Developing Countries

Iqbal, S. (1999)

Published in: 1999
Pages: 89

Eawag-Sandec, Dübendorf, Switzerland.

Iqbal, S.

Uploaded by:
SuSanA Admin

Partner profile:
common upload


The rapidly growing and small floating aquatic plants of the botanical family of Lemnaceae are capable of accumulating nutrients and minerals from wastewater. The latter are finally removed from the system as the plants are harvested from the pond surface. Because of their comparatively high productivity and nutritional value, particularly their high content of valuable protein, they provide an excellent feed supplement for animals such as fish or poultry. Duckweed holds the potential to create a financial incentive for controlled faeces and wastewater collection in both rural and urban areas and, therefore, improve sanitary conditions. When duckweed biomass is used for animal production, the generation of income and nutritional improvement appear as possible side-benefits from the wastewater treatment process. Thus, the full potential of duckweed aquaculture lies in its combined use in the fields of sanitation, food production and income generation.

This literature review provides a first overview of the possibilities, potentials and limits of duckweed aquaculture and its combined use in wastewater treatment and animal feed production in low and middle-income countries. It is somewhat limited as critical literature on duckweed field use is scarce and difficult to obtain (e.g. unpublished internal documents). According to NGOs and commercial suppliers, the duckweed projects seem very positive and promising, and the practical problems encountered with their application rarely mentioned.

Bibliographic information

Iqbal, S. (1999). Duckweed Aquaculture - Potentials, Possibilities and Limitations for Combined Wastewater Treatment and Animal Feed Production in Developing Countries. Eawag-Sandec, Dübendorf, Switzerland.

Filter tags

English Europe & Central Asia


Duckweed Aquaculture

Format: pdf file
Size: 1.66 MB

Share this page on    

Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners  currently 400 partners

Networks Circle


Latest SuSanA Blog Articles

SuSanA Blog »

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »




Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Shit flow diagrams, excreta flow diagrams (309 SFDs worldwide)

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

Emersan eCompendium

Humanitarian Sanitation Hub

Sanitation Workers Knowledge and Learning Hub




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?
Forgot your username?