Published in: 2016
Environmental Technology, Taylor & Francis Group
Jaatinen, S. T., Palmrotha, M.R.T., Rintalaa, J.A., Tuhkanen, T.A.
The behaviour of pharmaceuticals related to the human immunodeficiency virus treatment was studied in the liquid phase of source-separated urine during six-month storage at 20°C. Six months is the recommended time for hygienization and use of urine as fertilizer. Compounds were spiked in urine as concentrations calculated to appear in urine. Assays were performed with separate compounds and as therapeutic groups of antivirals, antibiotics and antituberculotics. In addition, urine was amended either with faeces or urease inhibitor. The pharmaceutical concentrations were monitored from filtered samples with solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography. The concentration reductions of the studied compounds as such or with amendments ranged from less than 1% to more than 99% after six-month storage. The reductions without amendments were 41.9–99% for anti-tuberculotics;
Jaatinen, S. T., Palmrotha, M.R.T., Rintalaa, J.A., Tuhkanen, T.A. (2016). The effect of urine storage on antiviral and antibiotic compounds in the liquid phase of source-separated urine. Environmental Technology, Taylor & Francis Group
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