Cookie tracking notice
Are we allowed to crumble with cookies and anonymous tracking?

We use cookies on our website. Some of them are essential for the operation of the site (so called session cookies), while others help us to improve this site and the user experience (tracking cookies). We use the application Matomo and the external service etracker to analyze your behavior on our website anonymously. Because we value your privacy, we are here with asking your permission to use the following technologies. You can change your settings any time via this link or the menu item in footer menu. For more information visit our Data Policy

On-site Sanitation and Groundwater Contamination: A Policy and Technical Review

Krishnan, S. (2011)

Published in: 2011

INREM Foundation, India

Krishnan, S.

Uploaded by:
SuSanA secretariat

Partner profile:
common upload


 Location of library entry

Content - Summary

Going into the second decade of the 21st century, the question of good sanitation is yet unresolved in most of the developing world. A variety of contributing factors dictate that on-site sanitation is still the most widespread mode of sanitation available. If properly implemented, such options could in combination with other larger scale services offer viable alternatives and complementary approaches to dominantly sewer-based sanitation systems. However, both poor design of such on-site sanitation systems, dense habitation and a combination of physical hydrogeologic factors result in threat to the contamination to fresh groundwater resources. Drinking water in both rural and urban parts of the developing world being highly decentralized and dependent critically on aquifers, this contamination of groundwater such on-site sanitation has a heavy public health burden, visible through a host of diseases, causing widespread morbidity and mortality.

The objective of this report is to first provide ways of assessing this threat of contamination to groundwater and practical means of evaluating future vulnerability at the design stage itself. The report also looks at options for adaptation with such threat especially in dense habitations where both on-site sanitation and drinking water facilities are spaced very closely. The study is based on review of literature, discussion with experts and practitioners and calibrating these with presentations in public forums. The presented “Policy Review” and “Technical Review” parts of this report attends to the needs of planners, aid agencies, researchers and practitioners to unravel through the mesh of this question and find reasonable solutions that can make headway. Presented also is a simple spreadsheet tool that summarizes the learnings and offers a method to assess vulnerability and compare alternatives.

Bibliographic information

Krishnan, S. (2011). On-site Sanitation and Groundwater Contamination: A Policy and Technical Review. INREM Foundation, India

Filter tags

East Asia & Pacific English Groundwater protection (WG11) Recommended by SuSanA (other than SuSanA publications)


On-site Sanitation and Groundwater Contamination: A Policy and Technical Review

Format: pdf file
Size: 0.48 MB

Share this page on    

Networks Circle


Latest SuSanA Blog Articles

SuSanA Blog »

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »




Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Shit flow diagrams, excreta flow diagrams (310 SFDs worldwide)

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

Emersan eCompendium

Humanitarian Sanitation Hub

Sanitation Workers Knowledge and Learning Hub




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?
Forgot your username?