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Diversion for safe sanitation: Flushable urine-diverting dry toilet with on-site wash water recycling embedded in a concept of transport logistics and treatment - Various documents on results from research grant

Larsen, T. (2013)

Published in: 2013

Eawag (Switzerland) in cooperation with EOOS (Austria)

Larsen, T.

Uploaded by:
SuSanA secretariat

Partner profile:
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Content - Summary

This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Tove Larsen is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion Forum, see link below.

Short description of the project:
The Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) and industrial design company EOOS develop a urine-diverting dry toilet with the additional feature of an integrated wash water recovery that allows for the comfort of hand washing and toilet cleaning. The squatting “diversion toilet” pan separates three streams: undiluted urine, dry feces and wash water. The used water is treated on-site based on ultrafiltration and recycled for the same purposes. Separated urine and feces are transported to a semi-decentralized recovery plant (scale: ~800-1000 persons) where nutrients and energy are recovered.

The goal of RTTC Phase 1 (August 2011 – July 2012) was to design a urine-diverting dry toilet, that is user-friendly, attractive, hygienic, and allows for the use of water for personal hygiene and cleaning of the toilet surface and to deliver proof of the recycling technology as well as the proof of transport logistics and treatment concepts.

Goal of RTTC phase 2 (November 2012- February 2014) is to further develop the “diversion toilet” design and the on-site water recovery technology and to finally demonstrate an integrated toilet prototype “in an operational environment” (Technology Readiness Level TRL 7). Furthermore, the treatment technology for urine and the cooperation with external partners for feces treatment will be further developed to be demonstrated “in a relevant environment” (TRL 6). Additionally, a proof of concept will be delivered for a further development of the toilet with on-site feces and urine treatment (= “diversion autarky” toilet) (TRL5).

Start and end date: Phase 2: November 2012- February 2014
Funding for this research currently ongoing (yes/no): Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Swiss Development Cooperation (for the business model), Eawag and EOOS in-kind funding

Research or implementation partners:
• EOOS, Austria (website:
• Makerere University, Uganda

Documents available for download below:
1 - Diversion for safe sanitation (Paper at FSM2 Conference in Durban, 2012)

Bibliographic information

Larsen, T. (2013). Diversion for safe sanitation: Flushable urine-diverting dry toilet with on-site wash water recycling embedded in a concept of transport logistics and treatment - Various documents on results from research grant. Eawag (Switzerland) in cooperation with EOOS (Austria)

Filter tags

English Europe & Central Asia Fundamental research and engineering Sub-Saharan Africa Urban (entire city) Urine diversion dehydration toilets (UDDTs)

Further readings


1- Diversion for safe sanitation (FSM2 conference, 2012)

Format: pdf file
Size: 0.59 MB

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