Risk of clogging of drip-line emitters during urine fertilization through drip irrigation equipment

Zandee, M. (2012)

Published in: 2012

Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG), Switzerland

Zandee, M.

Uploaded by:
SuSanA secretariat

Partner profile:
common upload


 Location of library entry

Content - Summary

Stored human urine can be used as a balanced fertilizer in agriculture. However there are some challenges related to field application of urine. Using urine as a liquid fertilizer through drip irrigation could help overcome some of these challenges. In this report we describe the results of a field study aimed at testing two possible ways of coombinig urine fertilization and drip irrigation. The main finding ist that a system in which the water / urine mix is allowed to settle in the tank of the irrigation system for 45 minutes does not lead to more work for the farmer in terms of inspecting and unblocking the emitters in the drip lines than using only water. A second system, where irrigation with urine and water was done in sequence, did not function well. The most likely reason for this problem is a lack of pressure in the sysem when pure urine was used.

For situations where a different type of drip irrigation system is used and for places with hard water (high calcium content) we recommend further small scale testing before investing in a large system.

Bibliographic information

Zandee, M. (2012). Risk of clogging of drip-line emitters during urine fertilization through drip irrigation equipment. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG), Switzerland

Filter tags

Asia & Pacific English Practitioners Urine


Risk of clogging of drip-line emitters during urine fertilization through drip irrigation equipment

Format: pdf file
Size: 4.41 MB

Share this page on    

Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners  currently 383 partners

Sanitation events

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »

Latest tweets mentioning SuSanA

Tweets mentioning SuSanA »

31st SuSanA Meeting

The 31st SuSanA meeting - the second time online - will take place from August 16th to August 20th 2021. It is organised by the SuSana Secretariat with support and contributions from SuSanA Partners, Members, Working Groups and Regional Chapters. 

Click here to get to the Meeting Page!

SuSanA meetings





Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Regional chapters

Use the map or the search tool to access the most relevant information and knowledge products for your region or country. This includes relevant resources, events, partners or projects.

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs), excreta flow diagrams

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

Emersan eCompendium




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?