Cookie tracking notice
Are we allowed to crumble with cookies and anonymous tracking?

We use cookies on our website. Some of them are essential for the operation of the site (so called session cookies), while others help us to improve this site and the user experience (tracking cookies). We use the application Matomo and the external service etracker to analyze your behavior on our website anonymously. Because we value your privacy, we are here with asking your permission to use the following technologies. You can change your settings any time via this link or the menu item in footer menu. For more information visit our Data Policy

Landscape Analysis and Business Model Assessment in Fecal Sludge Management: Extraction and Transportation Models in Africa, Kenya Report - Volume I of II, main report

Mwangi, L., Nzainga, J., Muvelah, S., Kiogora, A. (2011)

Published in: 2011

Consultancy report by Losai Management Limited, commissioned by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA

Mwangi, L., Nzainga, J., Muvelah, S., Kiogora, A.

Uploaded by:
SuSanA secretariat

Partner profile:
common upload


 Location of library entry

Content - Summary

As per the BMGates criteria for selection of the 3 local case study sites (cities), the Kenya Study Team selected Nairobi – the capital and the largest city - in the center; Mombasa and the second largest city - at the coast, in the east; and Kisumu – the third largest city - by the lakeside, in the west. The 3 cities each have sludge treatment plants and official dumping sites.

Across the three cities FSM policy is generally lacking and as a consequence, the present framework of guiding private sector stakeholders does not lend itself to developing a sustainable industry. A number of areas are in need of public policy intervention

i. Regulation : This has to be centralized and formulated
ii. Licensing: This is not coherent, the licensing regime and the whole system lacks structure
iii. Industry Incentives: These are non-existent and therefore private sector operators have to pay to provide public infrastructure. For example the lack of sufficient tipping points causes long distance travel, which reduces the overall service rate of the industry.
iv. Taxation: Fiscal incentives lack for this industry even which may be deserved since the service often qualifies as an essential service

Three business models proposed which would improve the value chain in the industry. These are

i. Bio-centers as social enterprises: On the whole the Bio-centers have proven to be self- sustaining once capitalized and have demonstrated positive health externalities particularly at the low income household levels.
ii. Microfinance targeted at Sanitation services: A microfinance model and fund targeted at sanitation services would enhance the access to credit to the sub-sector.
iii. Treatment plants enhancement for product drying, packaging and distribution. Treated FS is more affordable that commercial fertilizers. The acceptability of treated FS re-use would be raised by increased public education, though already there is FR-re-use acceptability. Investing in modernizing FSTP to rely less on weather for the drying process would increase annual output. Kenya has wet conditions for 8 months of the year. In addition, because of the bulky nature of treated FS packaging would ease transportation and distribution to market. The large share of agriculture in the economy at 24% of GDP would offer a market for the use of treated FS.

The immediate business opportunity in FSM identified during this study is investing in Bio- centres. The bio-centre service has been noted to be self sustaining entities able to achieve cost recovery and payback the initial capital outlay.

Fecal Sludge Management Expert - Lawrence Mwangi - Team Leader
Water and Sanitation Engineer - Jackson Nzainga - Deputy Team Leader
Financial & Institutional Management Specialist - Sammy Muvelah
Social-Economic Specialist - Abonyai Kiogora

Bibliographic information

Mwangi, L., Nzainga, J., Muvelah, S., Kiogora, A. (2011). Landscape Analysis and Business Model Assessment in Fecal Sludge Management: Extraction and Transportation Models in Africa, Kenya Report - Volume I of II, main report. Consultancy report by Losai Management Limited, commissioned by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA

Filter tags

English Faecal sludge treatment processes Fundamental research and engineering Peri-urban Sub-Saharan Africa


Landscape Analysis and Business Model Assessment in Fecal Sludge Management: Extraction and Transportation Models in Africa

Format: pdf file
Size: 3.83 MB

Share this page on    

Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners  currently 395 partners

Networks Circle


Sanitation events

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »

Latest tweets mentioning SuSanA

Tweets mentioning SuSanA »

32nd SuSanA Meeting

The 32nd virtual SuSanA Meeting took place Monday, 22nd of August (9:00 - 17:00 CEST), right before the Stockholm World Water Week. It was organised by the Secretariat with support and contributions from SuSanA Partners, Members, Working Groups, Regional Chapters and many more. 

Now meeting recordings and presentations available: Click here to get to the Meeting Page!

SuSanA meetings





Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Sanitation Workers Knowledge and Learning Hub

Regional chapters

Use the map or the search tool to access the most relevant information and knowledge products for your region or country. This includes relevant resources, events, partners or projects.

Shit flow diagrams, excreta flow diagrams (240 SFDs worldwide)

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

Emersan eCompendium




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?
Forgot your username?