Piloting and testing the pour flush latrine technology for its applicability in South Africa

Still, D., Louton, B. (2012)

Published in: 2012

Publisher:
Report to the Water Research Commission, WRC Report No. 1887/1/12 ISBN 978-1-4312-0289-8, South Africa

Author:
Still, D., Louton, B.

Uploaded by:
SuSanA secretariat


3876 Views
105 Downloads


 Location of library entry

This project investigated the potential for modifying the pour flush design, which is used widely in Asia, to meet the needs of the South African context. The development and application of pour flush systems in Asia was studied. Three case studies were conducted to investigate the experience of South Africans with low flush systems in the past and related technologies were surveyed. A prototype was developed and tested after which the technology was piloted in twenty homes for usage periods of up to eighteen months. The systems were monitored over the course of the project and performance and user experience were assessed at the end of the project.

The following key findings have come out of this study (shortened from full report):

• South African experience with low flush systems. User perceptions expressed during the case studies conducted in this study with the DSA and Hungerford Schroeder low flush systems indicated that users perceived a number of problems with their systems. While some experimental aspects of the design of these systems may have led to operational problems over time, there is clearly a complex relationship between a number of factors which contribute to the success or failure of a system: system design, correct installation, availability of replacement parts, user behaviour and user attitudes – which can be influenced to a large extent by political and social dynamics.

• Design. The pour flush system developed in this study has proven successful over the first 18 months of testing. To date, only one blockage has been experienced in any of the 20 systems, and this was caused by a child flushing a plastic bag down the toilet. The one litre flush has proved adequate for typical situations, with a two litre flush sometimes used where there is a particularly long sewer leading to the soak pit.

• User satisfaction has been high and visitors to the homes where the technology was piloted expressed an interest in the pour flush model. Responses indicate that the pour flush system adequately addresses the wish of many dry sanitation users for a flush toilet, with the political, social and logistical considerations involved.

• Life span. Measurements of sludge depth were taken for seven pits. The pits were found to be filling at a rate ranging from 114 litres per year to 392 litres per year. When calculated based on the number of householders, filling rates ranged from 26 litres per person per year to 57 litres per person per year, with a median filling rate of 35 litres per person per year. Considering degradation and leaching over time, this indicates a probable life span of approximately 5 years before the pits need to be emptied. The sludge to date appears to be of a consistency which could be extracted by vacuum.

• Newspaper. The toilet proved robust enough for newspaper to be flushed without blocking the system during testing. While all households were provided with an initial pack of toilet paper and encouraged to use toilet paper if possible, it was also explained to householders how to flush with newspaper if necessary. Two households have begun to use newspaper without difficulty.

• Cost. This technology is considerably less costly than installing a full flush toilet connected to a sewer or a standard septic tank. In addition, it is not dependent on a piped water supply and can be used even if the water supply is cut off occasionally, as a small amount of water is required and greywater can be used.

• Rubbish. All respondents indicated that they do not use the toilet for disposal of any other waste. Some personal items were observed in some pits a year after construction, however, in a community that has no reliable rubbish collection. The presence of waste in the pit could present difficulties when the pit needs to be emptied.

Bibliographic information

Still, D., Louton, B. (2012). Piloting and testing the pour flush latrine technology for its applicability in South Africa. Report to the Water Research Commission, WRC Report No. 1887/1/12 ISBN 978-1-4312-0289-8, South Africa

Filter tags

English Sub-Saharan Africa

Download

Piloting and testing the pour flush latrine technology for its applicability in South Africa

Format: pdf file
Size: 6.31 MB

Share this page on    


Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners  currently 350 partners

Sanitation events

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »

Latest tweets mentioning SuSanA

  • 19-07-2019 19:44Gustavo Heredia:
    RT @SuSanALatinoam1: Seguimos compartiendo información de nuestros panelistas, hoy "Aguatuya", en nuestra webinar "Saneamiento básico para… »
  • 19-07-2019 17:45SuSanA Latinoamérica:
    Seguimos compartiendo información de nuestros panelistas, hoy "Aguatuya", en nuestra webinar "Saneamiento básico pa… »
  • 19-07-2019 13:00SuSanA:
    "Has SuSanA been able to demonstrate impact on sanitation?" We would be pleased if you join the discussion in our F… »
  • 19-07-2019 07:49JK:
    RT @susana_org: The FSM Alliance is looking for two coordinators for its Secretariat. They are hiring: - Communications and Fundraising C… »
  • 19-07-2019 06:23Habeeb A.P:
    RT @susana_org: The FSM Alliance is looking for two coordinators for its Secretariat. They are hiring: - Communications and Fundraising C… »
  • 19-07-2019 00:14MFogde:
    RT @SuSanALatinoam1: Hoy nos toca compartir información de "X-Runner", otro de nuestros panelistas en nuestra webinar "Saneamiento básico p… »

Tweets mentioning SuSanA »

28th SuSanA meeting, Stockholm

The next SuSanA meeting will take place in Stockholm, Sweden. We will meet on the 24th of August, just before the World Water Week 2019 begins. More information will be available soon.

Find out more about the meeting! 

SuSanA meetings

Jobs

 


close  

 

Resources and publications

Our library has more than 2300 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:

Projects

The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.


Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Regional chapters

Use the map or the search tool to access the most relevant information and knowledge products for your region or country. This includes relevant resources, events, partners or projects.

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs), excreta flow diagrams

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

 


close  

 

Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »


Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »


Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member

Login


Forgot your password?

 


close