Cookie tracking notice
Are we allowed to crumble with cookies and anonymous tracking?

We use cookies on our website. Some of them are essential for the operation of the site (so called session cookies), while others help us to improve this site and the user experience (tracking cookies). We use the application Matomo and the external service etracker to analyze your behavior on our website anonymously. Because we value your privacy, we are here with asking your permission to use the following technologies. You can change your settings any time via this link or the menu item in footer menu. For more information visit our Data Policy

The business of the honey-suckers in Bengaluru (India) - The potentials and limitations of commercial faecal sludge recycling

Kvarnström, E., Verhagen, J., Nilsson, M., Srikantaiah, V., Ramachandran, S., Singh, K. (2012)

Published in: 2012

International Water and Sanitation Centre (IRC), The Hague

Kvarnström, E., Verhagen, J., Nilsson, M., Srikantaiah, V., Ramachandran, S., Singh, K.

Uploaded by:
SuSanA secretariat

Partner profile:


 Location of library entry

Content - Summary

This paper explores some contributions being made by honey-sucker tanker operators -- that renders a small-scale sanitation service informally and within the private sector -- on waste (faecal) extraction and, in some cases, reuse. Operating outside the legal framework of waste management, this paper provides preliminary insight into the limitations and potentials of the 'honey-sucker business' as a sanitation service model, based on selected experiences in Bengaluru (India). Through semi-structured interviews and the application of Osterwalder and Pigneur's (2010) business model building blocks tool, this paper reveals that:

i) a two-sided business model is being employed by the business (benefiting both septic tank/ pit owners and farmers);

ii) positive outcomes of sludge reuse in farms seem to outweigh negative outcomes; and

iii) the honey-sucker business seems to be a financially viable sanitation service model (especially amongst middle-class households with no piped connections).

As an exploratory study, the authors of the paper encourage further research into aspects that interlink with the honey-sucker business to achieve greater clarity on its positive contributions to society, and its prospects of scaling up and replication across different contexts.

Bibliographic information

Kvarnström, E., Verhagen, J., Nilsson, M., Srikantaiah, V., Ramachandran, S., Singh, K. (2012). The business of the honey-suckers in Bengaluru (India) - The potentials and limitations of commercial faecal sludge recycling. International Water and Sanitation Centre (IRC), The Hague

Filter tags

East Asia & Pacific English


The business of the honey-suckers in Bengaluru (India)

Format: pdf file
Size: 0.53 MB

Share this page on    

Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners  currently 399 partners

Networks Circle


Latest tweets mentioning SuSanA

Tweets mentioning SuSanA »

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »




Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Sanitation Workers Knowledge and Learning Hub

Regional chapters

Use the map or the search tool to access the most relevant information and knowledge products for your region or country. This includes relevant resources, events, partners or projects.

Shit flow diagrams, excreta flow diagrams (241 SFDs worldwide)

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

Emersan eCompendium




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?
Forgot your username?