Cookie tracking notice
Are we allowed to crumble with cookies and anonymous tracking?

We use cookies on our website. Some of them are essential for the operation of the site (so called session cookies), while others help us to improve this site and the user experience (tracking cookies). We use the application Matomo and the external service etracker to analyze your behavior on our website anonymously. Because we value your privacy, we are here with asking your permission to use the following technologies. You can change your settings any time via this link or the menu item in footer menu. For more information visit our Data Policy

Assessment of urine-diverting EcoSan toilets in Nepal

Pradhan, A. (2008)

Published in: 2008

WaterAid, Nepal

Pradhan, A.

Uploaded by:
SuSanA secretariat

Partner profile:
common upload


 Location of library entry

Content - Summary

Across the world, ecological sanitation (EcoSan) is increasingly being seen as a serious and realistic alternative for providing safe sanitation, reducing the health risks associated with poor sanitation, protecting water resources and soil fertility, and optimising resources management. The main features of EcoSan are containment of waste, sanitisation and re-use as plant nutrients and soil stabilisers.

The re-use of human excreta and organic waste as fertiliser is not new in
Nepal. However, the concept of EcoSan in its modern sense was first
introduced in Nepal in 2002, and since then more than 500 urine-diverting
EcoSan toilets of various models have been constructed in different parts of the country. Several organisations, including government and non-government agencies as well as some international agencies, are involved in promoting this technology and there is an increasing level of awareness of EcoSan and its benefits among professionals and policy makers. However, despite this positive development there remains a lot of work to be done before a real paradigm shift in sanitary provision can occur whereby people do not equate sanitation simply as access to toilets but rather to total and ecologically sound sanitation. In this context, the Environment and Public Health Organisation (ENPHO) has conducted a study, with assistance from WaterAid in Nepal, to assess the performance of urine-diverting EcoSan toilets in Nepal.

The study has found that, overall, the development and promotion of EcoSan
toilets in Nepal has been very good. Although most of these toilets have been built in the Kathmandu valley, the application of this technology has been slowly spreading to other parts of the country as well. EcoSan toilet designs have been developed and improved over the years to suit the local context. Different designs have been developed to cater for different needs, and innovations such as Wet EcoSan and Indoor EcoSan have also been developed locally. The study has found that most of the EcoSan toilets are being operated and maintained in a proper manner and most of the toilets are clean and hygienic.

Bibliographic information

Pradhan, A. (2008). Assessment of urine-diverting EcoSan toilets in Nepal. WaterAid, Nepal

Filter tags

East Asia & Pacific English Guidelines and manuals Practitioners Urine diversion dehydration toilets (UDDTs)


Assessment of urine-diverting EcoSan toilets in Nepal

Format: pdf file
Size: 1.18 MB

Share this page on    

Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners  currently 400 partners

Networks Circle


Latest SuSanA Blog Articles

SuSanA Blog »

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »




Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Shit flow diagrams, excreta flow diagrams (310 SFDs worldwide)

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

Emersan eCompendium

Humanitarian Sanitation Hub

Sanitation Workers Knowledge and Learning Hub




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?
Forgot your username?