Biological study on retention time of microorganisms in faecal material in urine-diverting eco-san latrines in Vietnam - Internet Dialogue on ecological sanitation

Chien, B. et al. (2001)

Published in: 2001

Chien, B. et al.

Uploaded by:
SuSanA secretariat

Partner profile:
common upload


Content - Summary

Most Vietnamese live in rural areas, where only 17% of households have some kind of hygienic latrines. Several risk factors and habits have resulted an high infection incidence of parasitic diseases (60-80%) and diarrhea cases (1240 cases/100 000 people/year). The potential risk of epidemic outbreaks of intestinal diseases is ever present.
Common types of toilets are pit holes and traditional Vietnamese double vault. During the last fifteen years, double vault pour flush toilets have been introduced in rural areas. These types of toilets still have some weak points for protection of human health and environment. With the support of the Sida funded Sanres programme, the Nhatrang Pasteur Institute together with the Department of Preventive Health of the Ministry of Health, Viet Nam have developed o pilot ecological sanitation (eco-san) project in Cam Duc.

Cam Duc is a commune of Cam Ranh District, Khanh Hoa Province in Viet Nam. It is a hot and sunny place with a dry season lasting at least 8 months. The commune has 1,831 households with 9,940 inhabitants. The main occupation is farming. A third of the household have hygienic toilets and have dug well, most half of which are contaminated by faeces. The prevalence of intestinal parasite infection is 65% and diarrhea incidence is 1,100 cases/100,000/year.

The double-vault latrines have been conducted in Vietnam since 1956 until now. Since 1985, all types of latrines like pour flush, septic tank or double-vault latrine are allowed. But some of environmental specialists still have considered double-vault latrine unhygienic. So the aim of our study is evaluate the time needed for retention of faeces in the latrines before recycling as fertilizer with the least possible risk of the becoming sick or the infection with excreta-related pathogens.

The results of pilot project in Cam Duc will be applied to other rural areas in Vietnam.

Bibliographic information

Chien, B. et al. (2001). Biological study on retention time of microorganisms in faecal material in urine-diverting eco-san latrines in Vietnam - Internet Dialogue on ecological sanitation.

Filter tags

Asia & Pacific English Urine diversion dehydration toilets (UDDTs)


Biological study on retention time of microorganisms in feacal material in urine-diverting eco-san latrines in vietnam

Format: pdf file
Size: 0.23 MB

Share this page on    

Sanitation events

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »

Latest tweets mentioning SuSanA

  • 04-06-2020 13:00SuSanA:
    Lack of adequate validated measures related to measuring menstruation within global health & development is a barri… »
  • 03-06-2020 21:01Mike Morrison:
    RT @Sparsh85: This is gem of an advice for using social media to disseminate science @EvMuench @susana_org »
  • 03-06-2020 17:45Paresh Chhajed:
    This is gem of an advice for using social media to disseminate science @EvMuench @susana_org »
  • 03-06-2020 13:21SuSanA:
    By bringing together the growing body of resources, including research and case studies for girls and boys, the fol… »
  • 03-06-2020 13:01CAWST:
    RT @SuSanALatinoam1: El coronavirus COVID-19 está causando estragos en la economía y los sistemas de salud a nivel global, sin embargo exis… »
  • 03-06-2020 13:00CAWST:
    RT @SuSanALatinoam1: No se olviden registrarse, este jueves 4 de junio, la webinar a las 10:00 a.m. Para registrarse siga el siguiente link… »

Tweets mentioning SuSanA »

29th SuSanA meeting, Kampala, Uganda

The 29th SuSanA meeting took place on Saturday, 22 February 2020 - just before the The African Water Association (AfWA) International Congress and Exhibition in Kampala, Uganda.

The documentation of the meeting is available here!

SuSanA meetings





Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Regional chapters

Use the map or the search tool to access the most relevant information and knowledge products for your region or country. This includes relevant resources, events, partners or projects.

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs), excreta flow diagrams

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?