Cookie tracking notice
Are we allowed to crumble with cookies and anonymous tracking?

We use cookies on our website. Some of them are essential for the operation of the site (so called session cookies), while others help us to improve this site and the user experience (tracking cookies). We use the application Matomo and the external service etracker to analyze your behavior on our website anonymously. Because we value your privacy, we are here with asking your permission to use the following technologies. You can change your settings any time via this link or the menu item in footer menu. For more information visit our Data Policy

Sanitation study - Evaluation of dry sanitation systems in Namibia

Uhlendahl, T. (ed.) (2011)

Published in: 2011

Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Freiburg, Germany

Uhlendahl, T. (ed.)

Uploaded by:
SuSanA secretariat

Partner profile:
common upload


 Location of library entry

Content - Summary

The provision of appropriate sanitation services for all citizens is one of the biggest challenges for a sustainable development in Namibia. Considering the arid climate, the water scarcity and the high percentage of people without access to sanitation, especially in rural areas, dry sanitation systems seem to be an appropriate solution to reach the Millennium Development Goals which implicate the improvement of the access to basic sanitation.

The report provides detailed information on a project study which was conducted to identify factors contributing to the success and/or failure of dry sanitation systems in Namibia on a long term. During the project study several implemented dry sanitation systems around Namibia were evaluated. The evaluation was conducted by observing already implemented dry toilets (mainly Otji-Toilets), carrying out standardized interviews with users of dry sanitation systems as well as expert interviews with stakeholders related to the sanitation sector in Namibia. The accomplished survey in this context was structured regarding participation, financial, technical and maintenance aspects, cultural background as well as natural conditions.

Implemented on individual household level, dry toilets work quite well in Namibia. Besides the sensitization and the involvement of potential users of dry sanitation it is essential to empty the dry toilets on a regular basis and to allocate precise responsibilities for the entire maintenance process. For an increasing provision of dry sanitation on a larger scale in Namibia, new instruments for financing and subsidization have to be developed and a higher political support is needed.

Editor: Uhlendahl, Thomas
Authors: Cosenza, Ameli; Haxsen, Sören; Sattler, Yara; Wucherpfennig, Kai

The project was conducted in cooperation with the Namibian Desert Research Foundation (DRFN), the Habitat Research and Development Centre of Namibia (HRDC), The City of Windhoek and the Clay House Project (CHP).

Bibliographic information

Uhlendahl, T. (ed.) (2011). Sanitation study - Evaluation of dry sanitation systems in Namibia. Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Freiburg, Germany

Filter tags

English Sub-Saharan Africa Urban (entire city) Urban informal settlements (slums) Urine diversion dehydration toilets (UDDTs)


Sanitation study

Format: pdf file
Size: 3.33 MB

Share this page on    

Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners  currently 400 partners

Networks Circle


Latest SuSanA Blog Articles

SuSanA Blog »

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »




Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Shit flow diagrams, excreta flow diagrams (291 SFDs worldwide)

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

Emersan eCompendium

Humanitarian Sanitation Hub

Sanitation Workers Knowledge and Learning Hub




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?
Forgot your username?