Published in: 2007
Hammer, M., Clemens, J.
Fertilisers may contain pollutants that are applied to the field together with the nutrients. Comparing fertilisers is difficult because of their different concentrations of nutrients and pollutants. In this study an already existing model was taken. It was further developed to compare nutrient fluxes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, humus) and pollutants (heavy metals and pharmaceuticals) of pig and cattle slurry as well as human urine. The data used is taken from literature and, in the case of pharmaceuticals in urine, daily excretion rates were calculated. An amount of 19m3 ha21 a21 undiluted urine can be applied, limiting factor is sulphur. Without taking over-fertilisation into account, an addition of mineral fertiliser is required to any organic fertiliser application. In general, heavy metal, antibiotic, and hormone fluxes are higher by using animal manure then urine as fertiliser. However, additional loads of other pharmaceuticals consumed by humans have to be considered. Overall, the model is a suitable tool worthwhile to be extended in aspects of hygiene,
environmental impacts as for example, degradation processes as well as ecotoxicology.
We thank IWA for the permission to publish this article within the SuSanA library.
Hammer, M., Clemens, J. (2007). A tool to evaluate the fertiliser value and the environmental impact of substrates from wastewater treatment.
English Europe, Caucasus & Central Asia Urine
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