Published in: 2008
Water Research Commission, South Africa
Buckley, C. et al.
The eThekwini Municipality which is considered as one of the leading municipalities in South Africa in the provision of basic sanitation services has selected Urine Diversion,
Ventilated Improved Double Pit (UD/VIDP) toilets as the preferred delivery mechanism for certain communities in their area of responsibility. The first units were installed in 2003 and there were 58 000 (UD/VIDP) toilets in communities outside the urban centre at the end of 2007, built according to a constantly improving design that was initially based on a number of
guiding principles. It is planned to build 10 500 new units per year.
The eThekwini system is not a full EcoSan system, because it does not address the issue of recycling the nutrients in a systematic way. The eThekwini (UD/VIDP) toilets were installed because of the municipality's experience in the logistical difficulties and excessive cost
associated with the emptying of Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) toilets, which are recommended to be considered the minimum level of sanitation service that must be provided by a water services authority in South Africa. The eThekwini UD/VIDP toilets have a number of unique features which were developed to suit local conditions.
The aims of the documented research project were to:
1. Provide a scientific basis for the design and operation of urine
diversion toilets as used by eThekwini Municipality.
2. Evaluate the effectiveness of urine diversion toilets in improving
wellbeing of the user community.
3. Determine the fate of Ascaris spp. eggs from urine diversion toilets.
The research report provides:
1. An assessment of the health benefits of urine diversion toilets.
2. A qualitative model of the moisture balance and rate of stabilisation
of the contents of a urine diversion toilet.
3. A risk assessment of the operation and maintenance of urine diversion
Buckley, C. et al. (2008). Research into UD/VIDP (Urine Diversion Ventilated Improved Double Pit) Toilets: Physical and health-related characteristics of UD/VIDP vault contents - WRC Report No. 1629/1/08. Water Research Commission, South Africa
English Faecal sludge treatment processes Peri-urban Sub-Saharan Africa Urine diversion dehydration toilets (UDDTs)
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