Cookie tracking notice
Are we allowed to crumble with cookies and anonymous tracking?

We use cookies on our website. Some of them are essential for the operation of the site (so called session cookies), while others help us to improve this site and the user experience (tracking cookies). We use the application Matomo and the external service etracker to analyze your behavior on our website anonymously. Because we value your privacy, we are here with asking your permission to use the following technologies. You can change your settings any time via this link or the menu item in footer menu. For more information visit our Data Policy

Unisex urinal usability testing - consultancy report for Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Eschborn, Germany

Sindani, E. G. Y. (2011)

Published in: 2011

Sustainable Sanitation Design (SuSan Design)

Sindani, E. G. Y.

Uploaded by:
SuSanA secretariat

Partner profile:
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH


 Location of library entry

Content - Summary

Background:Industrial designer Sarah Keller, working and living in Kampala, Uganda from 2008 to 2009, wanted to design a product that serves the inhabitants of urban slums in Africa. A Nairobi slum was chosen for testing as a seriously affected urban area lacking a basic sanitation system. The sanitation situation in the slums of cities like Kampala and Nairobi is characterised by dirty latrines; filled up pits; long queues of waiting users; idlers, drunkards and bang smoking men around the facilities, all of which makes it hard, especially for women, to use the public facilities. The result of Sarah Keller’s work is the unisex urinal, which was developed in cooperation with Crestank, a Uganda subsidiary of a production company specialized in water containers, storage tanks and toilets made from plastics. Their HQ is in Nairobi.

Goal of unisex urinal: The design was led by the overall aim to enhance the slum residents’ human dignity. Especially designed to serve the needs of women, it should also serve the other family members. It should be producible with local material and local industrial partners. As a sustainable product, it should have a far reaching impact in areas such as hygiene, health, environment, education and economy.
The testing phase: The needed baseline, selection of families, community mobilization and testing phase lasting 3 months included placement of the unisex urinal with 2 x 10 families for 2 weeks and 1 week at a large primary school in a slum of Nairobi. The testing with families and school children was to assure that the product served the goals of the unisex urinal can be reached in the local context. One of the main intentions was to gain user feedback to ensure that the final product will be successful and can then be mass produced as a part of a scalable value chain for sanitation. The collection and sale of sanitized urine to farmers will serve the community as a source of income to maintain the value chain serving the community.

Results of testing phase: We experienced a great support by the community at all levels before and during the testing phase. The primary users (women) were very happy about the sense of relief, security and function the product gave them. The test has confirmed that women want to have access to this product. There is a certain willingness to pay for such a product, therefore additional studies should be undertaken regarding the market, production, distribution and information campaigns. We should also see how the unisex urinal can be customized for disabled people who gave great feedback when using it while bedridden.

Bibliographic information

Sindani, E. G. Y. (2011). Unisex urinal usability testing - consultancy report for Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Eschborn, Germany. Sustainable Sanitation Design (SuSan Design)

Filter tags

English Presentations Sub-Saharan Africa Urban (entire city) Urine


Unisex urinal usability testing

Format: pdf file
Size: 1.17 MB

Share this page on    

Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners  currently 382 partners

Networks Circle


Sanitation events

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »

Latest tweets mentioning SuSanA

  • 27-06-2022 15:14SuSanA:
    Join the "Global UNICEF-WHO webinar on lead contamination in drinking water" 🗓️Wednesday, June 29 7am (GMT-4:00)… »
  • 27-06-2022 15:12SuSanA:
    RT @sanwatforall: 📣 We're thrilled to launch the "Reach Out and Reach Up Study" - A global study to understand how different ‘external’ aud… »
  • 27-06-2022 15:11SuSanA:
    RT @WASHClusterGlob: ☝️Recent Global WASH Cluster Webinars! 🔍Find the links to recorded presentations by CAST and FST below. 👉Coordination… »
  • 27-06-2022 15:11SuSanA:
    RT @AquaforAll: ⏰Are you eager to learn how Impact-Linked Finance can boost profitability and support greater #impact? You still have time… »
  • 26-06-2022 12:14EVA MUHIA:
    The owner was kind enough to offer us a cup of tea, we didn’t need to step aside coz the environment was conducive.… »
  • 25-06-2022 11:33RWSN:
    RT @susana_org: 🎉It's #ForumFriday!🎉 Have you seen the new feature in the SFD graphic generator yet? Check it out here: »

Tweets mentioning SuSanA »

32nd SuSanA Meeting

The 32nd SuSanA meeting - the third time online - will take place on August 22nd August 2022. It is organised by the SuSanA Secretariat with support and contributions from SuSanA Partners, Members, Working Groups and Regional Chapters. 

Click here to get to the Meeting Page!

SuSanA meetings





Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Regional chapters

Use the map or the search tool to access the most relevant information and knowledge products for your region or country. This includes relevant resources, events, partners or projects.

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs), excreta flow diagrams

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

Emersan eCompendium




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?