Cookie tracking notice
Are we allowed to crumble with cookies and anonymous tracking?

We use cookies on our website. Some of them are essential for the operation of the site (so called session cookies), while others help us to improve this site and the user experience (tracking cookies). We use the application Matomo and the external service etracker to analyze your behavior on our website anonymously. Because we value your privacy, we are here with asking your permission to use the following technologies. You can change your settings any time via this link or the menu item in footer menu. For more information visit our Data Policy

Planning of sustainable sanitation for cities - Factsheet of Working Group 6

Lüthi, C., Lehn, H., Norström, A., Panesar, A., Rüd, S., Saywell, D., Verhagen, J., Ulrich, L., Ingle, R. (2012)

Published in: 2012

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

Lüthi, C., Lehn, H., Norström, A., Panesar, A., Rüd, S., Saywell, D., Verhagen, J., Ulrich, L., Ingle, R.

Uploaded by:
SuSanA secretariat

Partner profile:
common upload


Content - Summary

This factsheet deals with the planning of sustainable sanitation for urban and peri-urban areas of developing countries and its importance for achieving comprehensive and inclusive sanitation coverage in cities.
The key messages of this factsheet are:
· Top-down, supply-driven planning continues to dominate much of sectoral planning in the developing world. The resulting capital-intensive solutions tend to be costly, energy-intensive and inflexible, and often fail to reach large proportions of the urban poor.
· Experience has shown that importing sanitation planning models from industrialised countries and implementing centralised “one-size-fits-all” solutions is in many cases inappropriate and not sustainable in developing countries. Thus, planning approaches must be adapted to better allow for the planning and implementation of context-specific sanitation systems.
· Recent innovations in sanitation planning include a more integrated planning approach; a greater emphasis on the actual needs and financial capacity of the users, encompassing close consultation with all stakeholders and a systems approach to sanitation, integrating all
domains of the city.
· There is a lack of integration between the various components of environmental sanitation2 – excreta, domestic and industrial wastewater, solid waste and storm water are managed in separate systems, which are often run by different agencies or institutions. Better use of generated synergies through integrated approaches could lead to more sustainable and costeffective solutions.
· Political economy issues: improving sanitation coverage especially for the urban poor means tackling vested interests and corrupt practices of regulatory authorities, the private sector and politicians. Planning must openly deal with these issues and seek to increase incentives for anti-corrupt behaviours and to achieve greater transparency at community and city levels.
· Local authorities, utilities and donors have to be convinced that commitment and effective participation from all stakeholders are needed to achieve adequate and inclusive sanitation services.

This factsheet elaborates on the shortcomings of supply driven planning and presents three demand-led approaches which recognise that stakeholder involvement is a prerequisite to effective planning. Based on past experiences we propose guiding principles for better sanitation planning
in cities of developing countries.

Bibliographic information

Lüthi, C., Lehn, H., Norström, A., Panesar, A., Rüd, S., Saywell, D., Verhagen, J., Ulrich, L., Ingle, R. (2012). Planning of sustainable sanitation for cities - Factsheet of Working Group 6. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

Filter tags

Cities (WG6) English Factsheets and policy briefs Publications by SuSanA Publications by SuSanA


Planning of sustainable sanitation for cities

Format: pdf file
Size: 0.43 MB

Share this page on    

Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners  currently 400 partners

Networks Circle


Latest SuSanA Blog Articles

SuSanA Blog »

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »




Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Shit flow diagrams, excreta flow diagrams (310 SFDs worldwide)

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

Emersan eCompendium

Humanitarian Sanitation Hub

Sanitation Workers Knowledge and Learning Hub




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?
Forgot your username?