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Reuso de efluentes de un sistema de humedales artificiales, Trujillo, Perú (in Spanish) - Reuse of the effluents of a man-made wetland system , Trujillo, Peru - Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Miglio, R. (2010)

Published in: 2010

Publisher:
Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

Author:
Miglio, R.

Uploaded by:
SuSanA secretariat

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Content - Summary

Este estudio de caso describe un sistema de humedales artificiales en Milagro-Trujillo, Perú. El diseño se realizó para tratar los efluentes generados por 200 alumnos que estudian en el colegio Toni Real Vinces, generando 200 m3/día de agua residual domestica. El objetivo del proyecto era contribuir con el mejoramiento de las condiciones de enseñanza en el colegio a través del tratamiento y aprovechamiento de las aguas residuales producidas, para la generación de áreas verdes en el entorno del colegio, localizado en una zona desértica costera, en el norte del Perú. Las precipitaciones son escasas, y por encontrarse en una zona periurbana con altos niveles de pobreza, carece de servicios de agua potable y saneamiento. Actualmente el colegio se aprovisiona de agua mediante camiones cisterna, y hasta antes del inicio del proyecto, los desagües eran descargados al suelo mediante pozos de infiltración.

En el marco del proyecto se planteó la instalación de una planta de tratamiento mediante la tecnología de humedales artificiales subsuperficiales de flujo horizontal. Se utilizaron dos especies vegetales comunes en la zona, la totora (Scirpus californica) y el paraguitas (Cyperus alternifolius). El agua residual tratada, es almacenada en una cisterna donde se desinfecta con cloro. Paralelamente a la construcción del sistema de tratamiento, se realizó un taller para la capacitación de los niños y profesores del colegio, así como profesores de colegios vecinos e interesados del lugar, dirigido por los coordinadores de las universidades involucradas en el proyecto. Para el año de la construcción (2009), el costo de materiales fue de S/. 11,510 (once mil cinco cientos diez soles) y mano de obra para la construcción de la planta de tratamiento fue de 6,520 (seis mil cinco cientos veinte soles); en total S/. 18,030 (dieciocho mil cuatrocientos treinta soles) o al tipo de cambio $ 6,513 (seis mil cinco cientos trece dólares americanos).

Algunos de los criterios utilizados para la sostenibilidad fueron: operación por gravedad, no usar energía eléctrica, facilidad de mantenimiento, cuidado de la salud e higiene. Respecto a la minimización de impactos se buscó que no se generaran olores, reducir la presencia de insectos vectores y evitar el probable contacto de los estudiantes con el agua residual. Para definir el sistema de tratamiento, se evaluaron diferentes opciones, buscando aquella con mayor sostenibilidad en el tiempo y con la generación de menores impactos. Algunos de los criterios utilizados para la sostenibilidad fueron: operación por gravedad, no usar energía eléctrica, facilidad de mantenimiento, cuidado de la salud e higiene. Respecto a la minimización de impactos se buscó que no se generaran olores, reducir la presencia de insectos vectores y evitar el probable contacto de los estudiantes con el agua residual.

Instituciones Planificadoras: Universidad de Islas Baleares, Palma de Mallorca, España y Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú. Financiamiento: Cooperación Universitaria al Desarrollo ? Gobernación de Islas Baleares; Universidad de Islas Baleares; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina

Bibliographic information

Miglio, R. (2010). Reuso de efluentes de un sistema de humedales artificiales, Trujillo, Perú (in Spanish) - Reuse of the effluents of a man-made wetland system , Trujillo, Peru - Case study of sustainable sanitation projects. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

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