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Small-scale sanitation scaling up (4S)

2015 - 2018 • EAWAG (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology)


The project seeks to provide sound empirical evidence for future small-scale sanitation sector investments in South Asia


Eawag/Sandec is partnering with the Indian Institute of Technology (Chennai) and BORDA, Germany to carry out the first systematic assessment of small-scale sanitation systems in South Asia funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The main goal of the project is to provide evidence-based policy recommendations for improved system design, operation and maintenance (O&M) and monitoring to inform strategic financial decision making and effective institutional arrangements and, thus, contribute to the increase of sanitation coverage in South Asia.

The project, based in Bangalore, focuses on India, especially the States of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, as well as Nepal, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

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Countries of activity

Location of main activity


The project seeks to provide sound empirical evidence for future small-scale sanitation sector investments in South Asia.

The 19 month research project will incorporate four key elements:
- Landscaping studies of small-scale sanitation systems in India and Nepal.
- Detailed socio-economic evaluation, cost-benefit and Life Cycle Analysis of selected systems (including sampling campaigns).
- Institutional analysis
- Policy recommendations to improve the regulatory framework, system design implementation and O&M guidelines based on evaluation findings.

Further information

Research or implementation partners: BORDA Germany, IIT Madras, ENPHO (Nepal) and NMBU (LCA Partner)

Filter tags

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Constructed wetlands Decentralised wastewater treatment (e.g. DEWATS) East Asia & Pacific Operation, maintenance and sustainable services Practitioners Specific to one or several countries Technology comparisons Treatment of wastewater or greywater University, education or research institution


Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology

Eawag is a world-leading aquatic research institute. Its research, which is driven by the needs of society, provides the basis for innovative approaches and technologies in the water sector. Through close collaboration with experts from industry, government and professional associations, Eawag plays an important bridging role between theory and practice, allowing new scientific insights to be rapidly implemented.

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danijela milosevic (milli)

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