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Stimulating Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) business for effective service delivery in sustainable sanitation through private sector engagement in Kathmandu Valley

2014 - 2015 • Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO)


The main goal of the project is to create enabling environment in providing population of Kathmandu Valley with safe and improved access to sustainable sanitation through private sector engagement and regulation of key policies related to FSM in the city.


The Government of Nepal has set a target of achieving universal access to sanitation by 2017. Therefore many agencies are promoting various sanitation systems but proper planning of Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) is often neglected which is causing severe adverse impact in the environment. FS generated from on-site sanitation systems in urban areas are disposed of haphazardly into the environment and illegally dumped into the sewers due to lack of proper FS treatment systems. The Bagmati river, originating from Kathmandu Valley and flowing through Kathmandu and Lalitpur cities, is heavily polluted due to the discharge of untreated sewerage including unsafe disposal of solid waste and faecal/septage sludge. Faecal sludge (FS) collection/emptying, transportation and safe disposal are still a critical issue in Kathmandu Valley. Haphazard FS disposal, lack of formal partnership between private FS extraction and transportation service providers and cities, limited capacity of private operators to promote & expand FS business and inadequate research data on technical, economical and institutional aspects of FSM are major problems identified in the context of Kathmandu Valley. To recognize the current status of FSM in Kathmandu Valley, ENPHO with support from The Bill Gates and Melinda Foundation (BMGF) and DfID, UK has conducted a study in Kathmandu Valley.

The main goal of the project is to create enabling environment in providing population of Kathmandu Valley with safe and improved access to sustainable sanitation through private sector engagement and regulation of key policies related to FSM in the city.

Countries of activity

Location of main activity


Following are specific objectives of the project:
• To develop comprehensive FSM strategy and business model for Kathmandu Valley by assessing current status, institutional arrangements, potential partners, policies, guidelines and associated problems;
• To identify best model of partnership between city and private sectors on delivering city-wide sanitation services and present effective implementation framework of such model;
• To perform research on FS characteristics and fractionation for designing simple, cost effective FS treatment/Co-treatment systems including resource recovery and re-use;
• To recommend effective mechanism for efficient resource mobilization for FSM, particularly for FS treatment system with involvement of city, private sectors including development banks;

Further information

Research or implementation partners:
• Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitian City - Lalitpur is one of the municipalities in Kathmandu Valley. The study was also intended to identify institutional framework of local government body to manage FS at local level. The role of Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan City was to support the study by providing relevant information and documents related to sanitation activities within the municipality.
• One Planet Solutions Pvt. Ltd. (The role of One Planet Solutions was to prepare business plan on FSM.)

DFID co-funded

Filter tags

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Cities East Asia & Pacific Emptying and transport (non sewered) Enabling environment and institutional strengthening Faecal sludge treatment processes Local NGO Market development Operation, maintenance and sustainable services Practitioners Public awareness, advocacy and civil society engagement Specific to one or several countries Treatment of faecal sludge UK government Urban (entire city)


Environment and Public Health Organization
P.O. Box 4102, New Baneshwor, Kathmandu

ENPHO is a service-oriented national Non Governmental Organization, established in 1990 that envisages contributing in sustainable community development by combining research and actions through the integrated programs in the environment and public health areas. ENPHO at present runs a government accredited laboratory for environmental monitoring and analysis and is actively involved in promoting eco-friendly technologies such as SODIS, Ecosan toilets and waste water treatment through reed bed systems.

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danijela milosevic (milli)

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