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Diversion for safe sanitation: Flushable urine-diverting dry toilet with on-site wash water recycling embedded in a concept of transport logistics and treatment

2011 - 2014 • Eawag (Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology) / Sandec


The squatting “diversion toilet” includes integrated wash water recovery for hand washing and toilet cleaning. It separates undiluted urine, dry feces and wash water. The used water passes ultrafiltration and is recycled for the same purposes.


The Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) and industrial design company EOOS develop a urine-diverting dry toilet with the additional feature of an integrated wash water recovery that allows for the comfort of hand washing and toilet cleaning. The squatting “diversion toilet” pan separates three streams: undiluted urine, dry feces and wash water. The used water is treated on-site based on ultrafiltration and recycled for the same purposes. Separated urine and feces are transported to a semi-decentralized recovery plant (scale: ~800-1000 persons) where nutrients and energy are recovered.

The name of this project was later changed to Blue Diversion Toilet.

Countries of activity

Location of main activity


The goal of RTTC Phase 1 (August 2011 – July 2012) was to design a urine-diverting dry toilet, that is user-friendly, attractive, hygienic, and allows for the use of water for personal hygiene and cleaning of the toilet surface and to deliver proof of the recycling technology as well as the proof of transport logistics and treatment concepts.

Goal of RTTC phase 2 (November 2012- February 2014) is to further develop the “diversion toilet” design and the on-site water recovery technology and to finally demonstrate an integrated toilet prototype “in an operational environment” (Technology Readiness Level TRL 7). Furthermore, the treatment technology for urine and the cooperation with external partners for feces treatment will be further developed to be demonstrated “in a relevant environment” (TRL 6). Additionally, a proof of concept will be delivered for a further development of the toilet with on-site feces and urine treatment (= “diversion autarky” toilet) (TRL5). Please note that existing urine treatment technology has been developed in the project VUNA ( ) and all further developments for the blue diversion project takes place in close cooperation with the VUNA project.

Further information

This was an RTTC grant.

Research or implementation partners:
• EOOS, Austria
• Makerere University, Uganda


Blue Diversion Toilet (video)

Filter tags

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Europe & Central Asia Fundamental research and engineering Global Greywater or wastewater Product design and engineering Sub-Saharan Africa Toilets or urinals (user interface) Treatment of wastewater or greywater University, education or research institution


Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology

Eawag is a world-leading aquatic research institute. Its research, which is driven by the needs of society, provides the basis for innovative approaches and technologies in the water sector. Through close collaboration with experts from industry, government and professional associations, Eawag plays an important bridging role between theory and practice, allowing new scientific insights to be rapidly implemented.

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Elisabeth von Muench (Elisabeth)

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