Cookie tracking notice
Are we allowed to crumble with cookies and anonymous tracking?

We use cookies on our website. Some of them are essential for the operation of the site (so called session cookies), while others help us to improve this site and the user experience (tracking cookies). We use the application Matomo and the external service etracker to analyze your behavior on our website anonymously. Because we value your privacy, we are here with asking your permission to use the following technologies. You can change your settings any time via this link or the menu item in footer menu. For more information visit our Data Policy

Findings Report Sanitation Workers in Tamil Nadu, India

Cawood, S., Prasad, CS. S. (2021)

Published in: 2021
Pages: 42

The University of Sheffield, GCRF

Cawood, S., Prasad, CS. S.

Uploaded by:
SuSanA secretariat

Partner profile:
common upload


The overall aim of the project was to identify the ways in which sanitation workers can improve and/or move out of hazardous and degrading forms of sanitation work – specifically pit latrine, septic tank, drain and sewer cleaning and emptying – in urban areas (small towns and large cities). The dire working conditions of sanitation workers – men, women and children engaged in the handling and management of faecal matter – are gaining increasing attention in research, policy and practice. The challenges facing workers such as poor health and safety; low, irregular pay and limited access to finance, social stigma and discrimination, are increasingly well documented, leading to calls for the promotion of decent work, skill development and rehabilitation across the sector (WHO 2018; World Bank 2019; Zaqout et al 2020). Despite progress, hazardous and degrading forms of sanitation work, such as manual scavenging, persist in many countries, including India, where it remains largely unseen and unheard by planners, politicians and wider society (Prasad and Ray 2019). Within this setting, greater understanding is needed of the intersections between gender, caste, religion and livelihoods in shaping pathways into and out of degrading forms of sanitation work. The project will develop recommendations on pathways to exit degrading manual sanitation work, in collaboration with local partner organisations, to be shared via global forums, and regionally across South Asia, where sanitation work persists as a caste-based occupation.

Bibliographic information

Cawood, S., Prasad, CS. S. (2021). Findings Report Sanitation Workers in Tamil Nadu, India. The University of Sheffield, GCRF

Filter tags

East Asia & Pacific English Import to Sanitation Workers Platform Research publications Urban (entire city)


Findings Report Sanitation Workers in Tamil Nadu, India

Format: pdf file
Size: 1.36 MB

Share this page on    

Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners  currently 400 partners

Networks Circle


Latest SuSanA Blog Articles

SuSanA Blog »

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »




Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Shit flow diagrams, excreta flow diagrams (309 SFDs worldwide)

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

Emersan eCompendium

Humanitarian Sanitation Hub

Sanitation Workers Knowledge and Learning Hub




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?
Forgot your username?