Cookie tracking notice
Are we allowed to crumble with cookies and anonymous tracking?

We use cookies on our website. Some of them are essential for the operation of the site (so called session cookies), while others help us to improve this site and the user experience (tracking cookies). We use the application Matomo and the external service etracker to analyze your behavior on our website anonymously. Because we value your privacy, we are here with asking your permission to use the following technologies. You can change your settings any time via this link or the menu item in footer menu. For more information visit our Data Policy

Understanding Open Defecation Practices in Rural Aceh, Indonesia

M. A. Kurniawan (2022)

Published in: 2022
Pages: 11


M. A. Kurniawan

Uploaded by:
SuSanA Admin

Partner profile:
common upload


Through Community Based Total Sanitation (known in Bahasa as Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyaralat or STBM), many rural communities in Aceh province in Indonesia have been supported to eliminate Open Defecation (OD). However, achieving Open Defecation Free (ODF) still remains a challenge for many residents. This technical paper presents the results of a study on open defecation practices in rural Aceh that was hit by a tsunami in December 2004. In 2018, the study was conducted to better understand the factors preventing toilet use in rural areas; factors supporting/ motivating rural households in Aceh to change their hygiene and sanitation behaviours, in particular on the use of toilets or ending OD practices and the social norms related to preventing OD practices in ODF villages as compared to non-ODF villages. Data was collected via a household survey (n of households = 491), focus group discussions and in-depth interview in 9 ODF and 10 non-ODF villages.

The study found that open defecation practices were prevalent not solely due to the lack of sanitation facilities but also lack of information and weak social norms played a significant role. Five key drivers were identified to change the sanitation and hygiene behaviour of the community that include: cleaner and healthier life, comfort, disease prevention, not disturbing or harming others, and privacy. Interestingly, the study found that open defecation practices are not always associated with financial capability of the households since majority of open defecators were not always from poorer households. Regarding the prevalence of a social norm around OP practice, ODF villages revealed stronger social norms compared to non-ODF villages.

The findings will inform the local government approaches, strategies, and priorities for acceleration of elimination of open defecation. The study recommends that the effectiveness of STBM as a behaviour change approach in Aceh can be strengthened through three key actions: (1) conduct triggering based on the five key drivers for toilet use found in the study (2) increase the participation of communities in STBM activities, and (3) design STBM activities to change social norms in communities for sustainable toilet use.

Bibliographic information

M. A. Kurniawan (2022). Understanding Open Defecation Practices in Rural Aceh, Indonesia. UNICEF

Filter tags

East Asia & Pacific English


Understanding Open Defecation Practices in Rural Aceh, Indonesia

Format: pdf file
Size: 0.8 MB

Share this page on    

Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners  currently 400 partners

Networks Circle


Latest SuSanA Blog Articles

  • 05-07-2024Lourdes Valenzuela:
    Brasilia June 2024: SIRWASH Dialogues: Public Policies for Economic Accessibility to Rural Water and Sanitation Services in the Context of Latin American and Caribbean Countries »
  • 11-06-2024 Ann Thomas:
    Nature Calls – why sanitation is the logical starting point for fighting climate change »
  • 07-05-2024Jeremy Kohlitz,Kaiea Ribanataake Awira,Ngaouea Neemia:
    Can Kiritimati become a model circular economy society? Water and sanitation as potential entry points »
  • 26-03-2024Alice Brandt ,Mascha Kaddori:
    Let’s get wild: Water, sanitation and hygiene at the human-wildlife interface »
  • 21-03-2024Tabeer Riaz:
    Empowering Young Women Water Professionals in South Asia: Leading the Wave of Change »
  • 12-03-2024Beauty Mkoba:
    Unlocking the potential of African Women in STEM through mentorship »
  • 08-03-2024Gloria Mariga :
    Mentorship empowers African women to lead environmental stewardship »

SuSanA Blog »

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »




Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Shit flow diagrams, excreta flow diagrams (310 SFDs worldwide)

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

Emersan eCompendium

Humanitarian Sanitation Hub

Sanitation Workers Knowledge and Learning Hub




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?
Forgot your username?