Sludge Treatment Wetland (STW) as a Post-Treatment for Toilet-Linked Biogas Plant - A pilot-scale case study in Gujarat, India

Mamani Casilla, G. H. (2014)

Published in: 2014
Pages: 72

MSc thesis, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, the Netherlands

Mamani Casilla, G. H.

Uploaded by:
SuSanA Admin

Partner profile:
IHE Delft Institute for Water Education


 Location of library entry

Since 1900's, anaerobic biogas digester had been applied successfully in Asian countries like India, Nepal and China, treating cow manure, pig excreta, organic waste or a combination of them, providing not only biogas, which is used as source of energy, but also slurry used as soil conditioner.

During last 20 years in India, different government and private institutions promoted the use of toilet linked biogas plants (TLBPs) especially in rural area. TLBP is a modification of the household-size anaerobic biogas digester which includes toilet effluent connection through a pipeline. This system not only generates biogas and slurry, but also offers a new option for wastewater disposal and treatment. However, little is known about the slurry's properties, and previous research studies recommended a post-treatment of TLBPs effluent, prior its use as soil amendment. One of the options are sludge treatment wetlands (STWs).

This research characterized the TLBPs effluent by determining its physico-chemical properties and microbiological quality; and also, evaluated the performance of four pilot-scale STWs operated at different sludge loading rates (40.5, 81.0, 121.5 and 162.0 kgTSS/m2-year). After sludge treatment two main products are generated: the biosolid accumulated at the STWs top layer and the water leachate collected at the bottom layer. Both products were evaluated from a reuse in agriculture point of view. Additionally the potential biomass production was compared for two plant species, Phragmites karka and Napier Bajra hybrid grass.

The four sludge treatment wetland configurations showed similar efficiencies in terms of nutrients concentration, mineralization and hygienisation, but regarding to sludge dryness, significant differences were observed at different loading rates. In fact, a loading rate of 108 kgTSS/m2-year is recommended to obtain a product with appropriate moisture content. On the other hand, the water leachate collected at the bottom of STWs has a quality enough to comply with the standard limits for reuse in agriculture; it can be reused for irrigation.

The TLBP is a very good on-site sanitation example, applicable especially in rural area of India. If a STW is implemented as slurry's post-treatment, not only the slurry's quality is improved, but also treated water if produced, has a potential reuse for irrigation. Additionally, the plants used in STW (Phragmites karka and Napier Bajra hybrid grass) could be a good source of foliage for cows and buffalos; however more specific tests have to be conducted in order to evaluate the plants' pollutant accumulation.

Bibliographic information

Mamani Casilla, G. H. (2014). Sludge Treatment Wetland (STW) as a Post-Treatment for Toilet-Linked Biogas Plant - A pilot-scale case study in Gujarat, India. MSc thesis, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, the Netherlands

Filter tags

Asia & Pacific Biogas systems Case studies in other formats Constructed wetlands English Faecal sludge treatment processes


Sludge Treatment Wetland (STW) as a Post-Treatment for Toilet-Linked Biogas Plant

Format: pdf file
Size: 3.25 MB

Share this page on    

Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners  currently 362 partners

Sanitation events

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »

Latest tweets mentioning SuSanA

  • 04-03-2021 19:01aguatuya:
    RT @fsm_alliance: We spoke to SCG Chemicals, @ihedelft , @susana_org and @aguatuya about why they've chosen to exhibit virtually this year… »
  • 04-03-2021 13:00SuSanA:
    Would you like to know about upcoming events relating to sanitation?🗣 Given this week's theme on #FSM💩♻️, you can… »
  • 04-03-2021 12:04SuSanA:
    Agreed- common terms are important! Any #Wikipedia enthusiasts who took a look at the title👀🤓… »
  • 04-03-2021 11:52SuSanA:
    RT @GIZWatSSUP: WatSSUP is implementing long-term COVID-19 preventive measures focusing on sustainable technologies for handwashing. One of… »
  • 04-03-2021 11:52SuSanA:
    RT @GIZWatSSUP: Today is the first day of our #WASHaLOTWednesday feature! Every Wednesday, for the next few months, we will share the story… »
  • 03-03-2021 18:38FSMA:
    We spoke to SCG Chemicals, @ihedelft , @susana_org and @aguatuya about why they've chosen to exhibit virtually this… »

Tweets mentioning SuSanA »

30th SuSanA meeting

The 30th SuSanA meeting - the first virtual of its kind - took place from August 17th to August 28th 2020. It was organised by the SuSana Secretariat with support and contributions from SuSanA Partners, Members, Working Groups and Regional Chapters.

Click here to get to the Meeting Page!

SuSanA meetings





Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Regional chapters

Use the map or the search tool to access the most relevant information and knowledge products for your region or country. This includes relevant resources, events, partners or projects.

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs), excreta flow diagrams

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?