Cookie tracking notice
Are we allowed to crumble with cookies and anonymous tracking?

We use cookies on our website. Some of them are essential for the operation of the site (so called session cookies), while others help us to improve this site and the user experience (tracking cookies). We use the application Matomo and the external service etracker to analyze your behavior on our website anonymously. Because we value your privacy, we are here with asking your permission to use the following technologies. You can change your settings any time via this link or the menu item in footer menu. For more information visit our Data Policy

Greywater tower gardens at household level Kitgum, Uganda - Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Kinobe, J., Kulabako, R., Olweny, S. (2010)

Published in: 2010

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

Kinobe, J., Kulabako, R., Olweny, S.

Uploaded by:
SuSanA secretariat

Partner profile:
common upload


 Location of library entry

Content - Summary

This case study shows the use of greywater towers as a tool for household sanitation in Uganda. The project serves 40 inhabitants in Kitgum Town, Uganda. The project has been realized within the ROSA project which aims to develop adaptable, affordable and replicable sanitation solutions in Africa. The investment is EUR 63 per tower garden (including labour) for 21 greywater towers, giving a total of EUR 1323. The project was planned by the ROSA Project Uganda: Kitgum Town Council, Makerere University and Ecosan Club, Austria and executed by Kitgum Town Council with the European Union support.

Three greywater tower gardens were set up at each of the selected seven households (a total of 21 towers). The study households were trained by the research team on how to set up the tower gardens as well as on the operation and maintenance aspects for effective performance. To show the effects of this irrigation/fertilisation method, a control tower garden set up in exactly the same way as the other greywater towers and planted with the same vegetables, was irrigated with groundwater instead of greywater.

Another project component consisted of gathering information about the impact of greywater on the soil. For that, soil samples were collected from each sample household prior to greywater application and analysed for pH, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content. The effect of greywater application on the soil characteristics was not significant with respect to potassium, organic matter and nitrogen content.

Tower gardens were operated in such a way that collected greywater from bathing and washing clothes was applied on a daily basis. The daily amount of greywater produced per household varied between 48 and 60 litres. Some of this greywater was used for cleaning the house as well as pit latrines, hence, not all of it was used for the tower gardens. The tower gardens are used to grow vegetables, mainly tomatoes and onions. The clear advantage of a tower garden is the reuse of greywater for vegetable growth where there is limited land and a family cannot have a big garden.

A walk through the area revealed fifteen additional households that set up greywater towers after realising the benefits associated with the study units. Through the introduction of tower gardens people got an understanding of the advantages of reusing greywater. In consequence, more households set up small vegetable gardens on their land and applied greywater directly to the plants, probably motivated by the fact that there was no extra investment required compared to that for a tower garden costing EUR 63.

Bibliographic information

Kinobe, J., Kulabako, R., Olweny, S. (2010). Greywater tower gardens at household level Kitgum, Uganda - Case study of sustainable sanitation projects. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

Filter tags

Case studies in SuSanA template Constructed wetlands English Greywater or wastewater Peri-urban Sub-Saharan Africa


Insert a Title ...

Format: pdf file
Size: 0.4 MB

Share this page on    

Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners  currently 400 partners

Networks Circle


Latest SuSanA Blog Articles

  • 05-07-2024Lourdes Valenzuela:
    Brasilia June 2024: SIRWASH Dialogues: Public Policies for Economic Accessibility to Rural Water and Sanitation Services in the Context of Latin American and Caribbean Countries »
  • 11-06-2024 Ann Thomas:
    Nature Calls – why sanitation is the logical starting point for fighting climate change »
  • 07-05-2024Jeremy Kohlitz,Kaiea Ribanataake Awira,Ngaouea Neemia:
    Can Kiritimati become a model circular economy society? Water and sanitation as potential entry points »
  • 26-03-2024Alice Brandt ,Mascha Kaddori:
    Let’s get wild: Water, sanitation and hygiene at the human-wildlife interface »
  • 21-03-2024Tabeer Riaz:
    Empowering Young Women Water Professionals in South Asia: Leading the Wave of Change »
  • 12-03-2024Beauty Mkoba:
    Unlocking the potential of African Women in STEM through mentorship »
  • 08-03-2024Gloria Mariga :
    Mentorship empowers African women to lead environmental stewardship »

SuSanA Blog »

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »




Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Shit flow diagrams, excreta flow diagrams (310 SFDs worldwide)

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

Emersan eCompendium

Humanitarian Sanitation Hub

Sanitation Workers Knowledge and Learning Hub




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?
Forgot your username?