Cookie tracking notice
Are we allowed to crumble with cookies and anonymous tracking?

We use cookies on our website. Some of them are essential for the operation of the site (so called session cookies), while others help us to improve this site and the user experience (tracking cookies). We use the application Matomo and the external service etracker to analyze your behavior on our website anonymously. Because we value your privacy, we are here with asking your permission to use the following technologies. You can change your settings any time via this link or the menu item in footer menu. For more information visit our Data Policy

Emergency Sanitation Project Phase II (ESP2)

2016 - 2019 • WASTE


To delevelop innovative concepts for sanitation and faecal sludge management in emergency settings


In Phase II we aimed to provide further evidence for solving some of the most challenging issues in the sanitation agenda and bringing innovative emergency sanitation solutions to scale. The three most significant gaps in emergency sanitation that required our attention in this project were:
• Excreta disposal in difficult locations (urban, high water table and flooding)
• Latrine emptying and desludging
• Centralised excreta disposal options

Our activities in the consortium: Improved Desludging in Raised Latrines
In Phase I of the project we developed reliable protocols to treat faecal sludge on household scale in laboratory conditions. In the second phase it was therefore time to test and further develop the technology in actual emergy settings. For example, to avoid problems with transport of hazardous faecal sludge from raised latrines to the disposal site, we sanitized the sludge in raised latrines before transfer. At the same time, we improved the conditions inside the raised latrines by reducing foul smell and fly and mosquito breeding.

In ESP1 (Phase 1) we have developed reliable methods to sanitize faecal sludge by means of lime, urea and lactic acid. As part of the Humanitarian Innovation Project, we have added experiences with soda/ Ikati, Phenol and EM. We now have reliable protocols to treat faecal sludge on household scale in laboratory conditions. To avoid problems with transport of hazardous faecal sludge from raised latrines to the disposal site, we now enter the phase where we sanitize the sludge in raised latrines BEFORE transfer. At the same time, we want
to improve the conditions inside the raised latrines by reducing foul smell and fly and mosquito breeding.

The need for innovation to meet the sanitation gap is huge, and was identified in 2013 in a Gap Analysis for Emergency WASH undertaken by Oxfam and funded through the HIF.

The three most significant gaps in emergency sanitation that require attention were:
- Excreta disposal in difficult locations (urban, high water table / flooding);
- Latrine emptying and desludging; and
- Centralised excreta disposal options.


Image: ESP2 © n/a

Countries of activity

Location of main activity


ESP Phase 2 wishes to contribute and expand the options available to humanitarian organizations for addressing these gaps.

Further information

The Emergency Sanitation Project (ESP) is a consortium of humanitarian agencies dedicated to research new technology and methodology for improving the ability of humanitarian organizations to provide sanitation in emergency response. The first phase of the project has led to an array of positive outcomes ranging from the development of sanitation equipment to building alliances with stakeholders including suppliers, product designers, students and field staff. In the second phase the consortium wanted to focus more on innovation in emergency sanitation design and equipment and further developing and testing the most promising technology. With as a final goal to bring these innovations to scale.

Impact realised:
- More alternative for sanitation in emergencies;
- More alternatives for faecal sludge treatment in emergencies.

Partners involved:
- IFRC, (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent
- Oxfam GB,
- NLRC, (Netherlands Red Cross)

Contact information

Jan Heeger
Login to see the e-mail-adress of the contact person.

Lauren Pope
Login to see the e-mail-adress of the contact person.

Filter tags

Camps (emergency or longer term) Emergency and reconstruction Emptying and transport (non sewered) Europe & Central Asia Faecal sludge treatment processes Global International NGO Practitioners Product design and engineering Sub-Saharan Africa Technology comparisons Toilets or urinals (user interface) Treatment of faecal sludge United States government

Attached files

The Emergency Sanitation Project Phase 2 Final Narrative Report (June 30, 2019)

Format: pdf file
Size: 0.88 MB


WASTE advisers on urban environment and development
The Hague

WASTE works towards sustainable improvement of the urban poor's living conditions and the urban environment in general. Our multi-year, multi-country programmes and projects have a focus on bottom-up development in relation to recycling, solid waste management, ecological sanitation and knowledge sharing. WASTE, located in the Netherlands, teams up with organisations in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe that share its goals and approaches.

view profile page

Uploaded by:
Lauren Pope (lpope)

Share this page on    

Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners  currently 400 partners

Show all partners »

Networks Circle


Latest SuSanA Blog Articles

  • 05-07-2024Lourdes Valenzuela:
    Brasilia June 2024: SIRWASH Dialogues: Public Policies for Economic Accessibility to Rural Water and Sanitation Services in the Context of Latin American and Caribbean Countries »
  • 11-06-2024 Ann Thomas:
    Nature Calls – why sanitation is the logical starting point for fighting climate change »
  • 07-05-2024Jeremy Kohlitz,Kaiea Ribanataake Awira,Ngaouea Neemia:
    Can Kiritimati become a model circular economy society? Water and sanitation as potential entry points »
  • 26-03-2024Alice Brandt ,Mascha Kaddori:
    Let’s get wild: Water, sanitation and hygiene at the human-wildlife interface »
  • 21-03-2024Tabeer Riaz:
    Empowering Young Women Water Professionals in South Asia: Leading the Wave of Change »
  • 12-03-2024Beauty Mkoba:
    Unlocking the potential of African Women in STEM through mentorship »
  • 08-03-2024Gloria Mariga :
    Mentorship empowers African women to lead environmental stewardship »

SuSanA Blog »

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »




Resources and publications

Our library has more than 3,000 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Shit flow diagrams, excreta flow diagrams (310 SFDs worldwide)

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

Emersan eCompendium

Humanitarian Sanitation Hub

Sanitation Workers Knowledge and Learning Hub




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSanA partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member


Forgot your password?
Forgot your username?