Tiger Worm Toilets for sanitation in humanitarian camps in Myanmar

2016 - 2018 • Oxfam GB

Purpose

Sustainable sanitation for humanitarian responses: Tiger Worm Toilets (TWT) for communal sanitation

Activities

1. Design workshop – bringing together experts in worm based sanitation, humanitarian sanitation and those from the camp area to produce appropriate design(s) which are costed in relation to local availability of materials and the skill set of local labour and contractors.

2. Implementation – 17 communal TWT blocks with 34 pans (two pans per block, used by ten families) have been constructed in the Say Tha Mar Gyi IDP Camp in rural Sittwe, Rakhine State, Myanmar. In addition, 45 household TWT have been constructed in Mingan IDP Relocation Area, where there are pilots of a smaller surface area in the tank (0.7m2 rather than 1m2) and phased addition of worms one month after the toilet has been in use. Users have been sensitised to these new toilets and the way in which the system works.

3. Monitoring – structured observation of both the Tiger Worm Toilet and control latrines, including:
- Usage
- State of the superstructure i.e. cleanliness, odour and smells
- Faecal sludge and vermicompost accumulation

Every quarter, focus groups are used to collect user feedback. After a period of 12 months, all systems are emptied and the faecal sludge and vermicompost is collected at the camp level to prepare life cycle costs (over a 10 year period).

4. Evaluation - results to be disseminated in the humanitarian sector by Oxfam, our collaborative research partner Dr Claire Furlong at UNESCO-IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, and the local institutions in Myanmar. The evaluation includes a technical, life time cost and user evaluation, which will be compared to the existing and traditional practice of pit latrines.

5. Adaptation - adaptations incorporating the learning from a year’s trial. This is written into a ‘Design, Operations & Maintenance Manual’ and an ‘Implementation Manual’ for the humanitarian sector.

Images

Image: Setting up tiger worm pit © Rhea Catada - Oxfam

Countries of activity

Location of main activity

Objectives

The specific project objective is to assess the viability of the tiger worm toilet for communal sanitation within the context of humanitarian camps in Myanmar. The project will produce a Design and Operation Manual and an Implementation Manual for the TWT, providing a ‘pick up and go’ pack to be used and replicated by other WaSH stakeholders - thus increasing the use, experience and scale of TWT.

Our long term goal is to find an effective and efficient communal sanitation system suitable for a range of users that is sustainable, cost-effective and that considers the whole sanitation chain (containment, emptying frequency and treatment).

Further information

This innovative application of a worm-based onsite sanitation system provides adaptability and flexibility: the latrine design can be offset or directly below the toilet, above or below the ground, can utilise an array of local materials for the vermifilter and can be adapted to urban, rural, camp or household level contexts.

The driver for change is odour-free toilets that do not need costly desludging or re-digging of pits, and that can be implemented in a range of contexts and users. Durability of sanitation systems is also critical, especially in respect of the fact that refugee camps caused by protracted crises frequently last for many years, if not decades.
The use of vermicompost in agriculture is already well established in Myanmar, and the project has succeeded in securing a supply of worms from two breeding centres in Yangon for the first phase of the project. However, challenges in obtaining sufficient quantity of worms within the planned timeframe for toilet construction has led Oxfam to set up its own wormeries too. Worm rearing has provided us an opportunity to link our humanitarian response with existing livelihoods work around agriculture in the area, providing an independent worm supply in the actual location where the TWTs are being installed.

The innovation will improve user experience due to it being conducive to those who use water for washing or flushing (the worms like, and need water), odourless and fly-free. The TWT digests, and consumes the faecal waste thereby reducing the need for emptying. To date, very few household systems have needed emptying – it is estimated they will require emptying once every five years, and this can be easily carried out by removing the vermi-compost from the top of the unit. This by-product is dry, odourless humus that can be used as a soil conditioner or buried on-site.

This is an Innovation Fund project.

Contact information

Jenny Lamb
Login to see the e-mail-adress of the contact person.

Filter tags

Asia & Pacific Camps (emergency or longer term) Community sanitation Emergency and reconstruction International NGO Myanmar Other funding source or unspecified Practitioners Specific to one or several countries Toilets or urinals (user interface) Treatment of faecal sludge Vermifilters, vermifilter toilets

Links

Oxfam GB
Oxfam
United Kingdom


Oxfam is a global movement of people working with others to overcome poverty and suffering. Oxfam is a vibrant global movement of passionate, dedicated people fighting poverty together. Doing amazing work, together. People power drives everything we do. From saving lives and developing projects that put poor people in charge of their lives and livelihoods, to campaigning for change that lasts.

view profile page

Share this page on    


Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners  currently 335 partners

Show all partners »

Sanitation events

SuSanA newsletter

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA newsletter is sent out around four times per year. It contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

Subscribe to newsletter »

Latest tweets mentioning SuSanA

Tweets mentioning SuSanA »

26th SuSanA Meeting, Stockholm!

The 26th SuSanA meeting will take place in Stockholm, Sweden on 25 August 2018 prior to the Stockholm World Water Week. It will be hosted by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) together with the SuSanA secretariat.

 

More information can be found on the meeting page »

SuSanA meetings

Jobs

 


close  

 

Resources and publications

Our library has more than 2300 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:

Projects

The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.


Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Regional chapters

Use the map or the search tool to access the most relevant information and knowledge products for your region or country. This includes relevant resources, events, partners or projects.

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs), excreta flow diagrams

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

 


close  

 

Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »


Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Not yet a SuSana partner? Show your organisation's support to SuSanA's vision and engage in  knowledge sharing by becoming partners.

Apply to become a partner »


Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member

Login


Forgot your password?

 


close