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Sanitation Library

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1607 Views
26 Downloads

Nitrogen is one of the principal nutrients found in wastewater. Discharges containing nitrogen can severely damage a water resource and it’s associated ecosystem. As a result, several chemical, physical and biological processes have been used to promote the removal of nitrogen. Nitrification and denitrification are two suggested processes that significantly reduce nitrogen levels in wastewater. …

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Roughing filtration is a simple, efficient and chemical free water treatment method for turbidity removal; it can be used as a pre-treatment method prior to slow sand filters or disinfection with chlorine. The main disadvantage of roughing filtration for use in emergency situations is that it uses gravel as a filter medium. Gravel may be unavailable or difficult to transport because of its …

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607 Views
9 Downloads

Many publications describe the protection of springs from contamination using spring boxes. The construction of such a structure takes time and money, and in many cases it may not be really necessary.

A spring box can be useful as:
-A sedimentation chamber where particles of sand carried in the spring water can settle out.
-A storage chamber, which is useful for springs where the peak rate …

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506 Views
1 Downloads

Wherever possible, a community should avoid the health risks which result from using contaminated pond water, by using an alternative, good-quality source. (Groundwater or rainwater sources will usually produce water of much better quality.) If a pond is the only source of water, the implementation of some of the ideas in this Technical Brief should improve the quality of the water. It is not …

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429 Views
8 Downloads

A VLOM pump is one which can be operated and sustained using Village Level Operation and Maintenance. The term VLOMM is also used, meaning Village Level Operation and Management of Maintenance. This addition emphasizes the role of users as the managers of maintenance – they may choose to use someone from outside the village to assist with more complicated repairs. Not all maintenance and repair …

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537 Views
9 Downloads

Small-scale irrigation is a key factor in the development of many rural communities in developing countries. A variety of water-lifting devices have been used in the past and this Technical Brief describes some of the most practical and efficient pumps in use today.

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559 Views
12 Downloads

Ground water is one of the Nation’s most important natural resources. It provides about 40 percent of the Nation’s public water supply. In addition, more than 40 million people, including most of the rural population, supply their own drinking water from domestic wells. As a result, ground water is an important source of drinking water in every State. Ground water is also the source of much …

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1812 Views
75 Downloads

The rapidly growing and small floating aquatic plants of the botanical family of Lemnaceae are capable of accumulating nutrients and minerals from wastewater. The latter are finally removed from the system as the plants are harvested from the pond surface. Because of their comparatively high productivity and nutritional value, particularly their high content of valuable protein, they provide an …

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1621 Views
34 Downloads

Based on the Field Report Entitled "Sedimentation Tank Sludge Accumulation Study" Prepared by S.A. Larmie WRI (Dec. 1994).

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1746 Views
26 Downloads

This report is the product of a five-month Centre Internship at the International Development Research Centre - Cities Feeding People Programme Initiative (CFP) during the summer of 1999. The report was commissioned to provide CFP team members an overview of emergent trends in environmentally sound and economically viable approaches to wastewater management. The subject of the report relates to …

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4514 Views
135 Downloads

On-site sanitation systems dispose of human excreta, with or without treatment, on the residents' housing plot. Examples include pit latrines and septic tanks with drainage fields. This study reviews the risks to health posed by groundwater contamination from on-site sanitation (particularly latrines). Detailed understanding of groundwater contamination is complicated by a host of factors, …

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32nd SuSanA Meeting

The 32nd virtual SuSanA Meeting took place Monday, 22nd of August (9:00 - 17:00 CEST), right before the Stockholm World Water Week. It was organised by the Secretariat with support and contributions from SuSanA Partners, Members, Working Groups, Regional Chapters and many more. 

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Shit flow diagrams, excreta flow diagrams (231 SFDs worldwide)

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

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