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69 Views
5 Downloads

The 1990s undoubtedly is the Decade of the Environment. Not because the decade may be so designated, or because there will be another world conference on the topic. The designation applies because there exists today an awareness, even a fear that, unless we take some decisive action to protect the environment, we will suffer unacceptable consequences; that this decade indeed could be the last …

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416 Views
8 Downloads

New national goals in wastewater treatment in the United States of America place strong emphasis on the use of natural systems and improved biological processes. These goals encourage sewage reuse through agriculture, forestry, and aquaculture (Duffer 1982). However, the cultivation of fish in wastewater has been of interest in the United States for only a short time: from a practical point of …

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585 Views
11 Downloads

This Irrigation and Drainage Paper is intended to provide guidance to national planners and decision-makers, agricultural and municipal managers, field engineers and scientists, health and agricultural field workers, wastewater treatment plant operators and farmers. Consequently, it covers a broad range of relevant material, some in considerable depth but some more superficially. It is meant to …

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182 Downloads

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134 Downloads

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195 Downloads

5472 Views
153 Downloads

472 Views
9 Downloads

Many low-income communities in developing countries consider stormwater dra inage to be their most urgent need as far as urban infrastructure is concerned. This is partly because their houses are often built on unsuitable land. In areas sufficiently close to the city centre for the journey to work to be affordable, land prices tend to be beyond their means. The only land they can afford, or on …

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274 Downloads

63 Views
4 Downloads

Sometown is a regional center in a predominantly agricultural area. It serves as a commercial center for this area, and has a well-established light industry as well as several food and cotton processing enterprises.

Water for the municipal supply is abstracted from wellfields 5 km east of the city limits. Water quality is at present excellent; the water is chlorinated, but only as a …

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23 Downloads

6152 Views
136 Downloads

575 Views
9 Downloads

Excreta constitute a valuable source of nutrients. In many countries (e.g. China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Indonesia) they are traditionally and widely used to fertilize fields and ponds where fish and aquatic vegetables are grown. In these areas, faecal wastes carry considerable economic importance. This may increase in the years to come elsewhere too as a result of the growing cost of mineral …

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418 Views
3 Downloads

This report describes field tests of three prototype pit latrine emptying systems, a hand operated diaphgram pump and two vacuum tankers in regular service in Africa. Numerous sludge samples were taken and their viscosities and compositions measured to establish limits for the types of sludges that can be removed by each system.

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624 Views
11 Downloads

The traditional solution to providing sanitation facilities in urban areas has been conventional sewerage, but this technology is so expensive that it is not generally affordable by low-income communities. World Bank research has shown that full health benefits can be obtained through the use of a variety of lower-cost alternative sanitation technologies. Although the user convenience level of …

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544 Views
4 Downloads

This Discussion Paper provides guidelines that will enable a design engineer to make a rational selection of the VIP latrine design option most appropriate to the community for which he is responsible. The designer is aiming at a technical choice that will be affordable to the householder and will give the best long-term service at the least cost. It is assumed for the purpose of this paper that …

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5760 Views
248 Downloads

456 Views
13 Downloads

This paper presents a state-of-the-art review on the septic tank and septic systems. Information on design and functional aspects, and environmental effects of septic tank systems are presented. In addition, some important research needs as reported in the literature are pinpointed. It should be noted that this review paper contains neither standards nor rules and regulations pertaining to septic …

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4323 Views
59 Downloads

532 Views
17 Downloads

This document provides information on generic types of onsi te wastewater treatment and disposal systems. It contains neither standards for those systems nor rules and regulations pertaining to onsite systems. The design information presented herein is intended as technical guidance reflective of sound, professional practice. The intended audience for the manual includes those involved in the …

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